Mi mount Parnassus. She also shook a laurel tree that grew near the place, and sometimes ate the leaves with which she crowned herse!f. The priestess was originally a virgin, but the institution was changed when Echechrates, a Thessalian, had offered violence to one of them, and none but women who were above the age of fifty were per mitted to enter upon thatsacred office. They always appeared dressed in the garments of virgins to intimate then- purity and modesty. and they were solemnly bound to observe the strictest laws of temperance and chastity. that neither phantastical dresses nor lascivi ous behaviour might bring the office, the religion, or the sanctity of the place into contempt. There was originally but one Pythia, besides subordinate priests, and afterwards two were chosen, and sometimes more. The most celebrated of all these is Phemonoe, •who is supposed bv some to have been the first who gave oracles at Delphi. The oracles were al way sdeli vered in hexameter verses, a_ custom which was some time after discontinued. The Pythia was consulted only one month in the year, about the spring. It was always required that those who consulted the oracle should make large presents to Apollo, and from thence arose the opulence, splendour, and the magnificence of that celebrated temple of Delphi. Sacrifices also were offered to the divinity, and if the omens proved unfavourable the priestess refused to give an answer. There were generally five priests who assisted at the offering of the sac rifices, and there was also another who attended the Pythia, and assisted her in receiving the oracle. \yid. Delphi, Oraculum.] Paui. 10, c 5—Diod. 16 —Strab. 6 and 9 —Justin. 24, c. 5—Plut. de orat. def.—Eu

rift, in IonChrysost Games celebrated

in honour of Apollo near the temple of Del phi. They were first instituted, according to the more received opinion, by Apollo himself, in commemoration of the victory which he had obtained over the serpent Pvthon, from which they received their name; though others maintain that they were first established by Agamemnon, or Diomedes, or b\ Amphictyon or lastly by the council of the Amphictyons, B. C. i 63. They were originally celebrated once in nine years, but afterwards every fifth year, on the second year of every Olympiad, according to the number of the Parnassian nymphs who congratulated Apollo after his victory. The gods themselves were originally among the combatants, and according to some authors.the first prizes were won by Pollux, in boxing; Castor, in horse-racing ; Hercules, in the pancratium , Zethus, in fighting with the armrair; Calais. in running; Telamon, in wrestling ; and Pe leus, in throwing the quoit. These illustrious conquerors vvere rewarded by Apollo himself, who was present with crowns and laurel. Some however observe, that it was nothing but a musical contention, in which he who sung best the praises of Apollo ob

tamed the prize, which was presents of gold and silver, which were afterwards exchanged for a garland of the palm tree, or of beech leaves. It is said that Hesiod was refused admission to these games, because he was not able to play upon the harp, which was required of all such as entered the lists. The songs which were sung were called mS-inti inftu the Pythian modes, divided into five parts, which contained a fight and victory of Apollo over Python ; aroxfmc, the firefiaration/or the fight; iu*ut*, the first attempt; aniAinr^oc, taking breath and collecting courage; ixpCu Xjj tiKruMi, the insulting sarcasms of the god over his vanquished enemy ; votryytc, in imitation of the hisses of the servient ; just as he expired under the blows of Apollo. A dance was also introduced; and in the 8th Olympiad, the Amphictyons, who presided over the games increased the number of musical instruments by the addition of a flute, but, as it was more peculiarly used in funeral songs and lamentations, it was soon rejected as unfit for merriment, and the festivals which represented the triumph of Apollo over the conquered serpent. The Roman, according to some, introduced them into their city, and called them Apollinares ludi. Paus.

10, c. 13 and ,>7^-Strab. 9 Ovid. Met. 1,

v. 447 —Plin. 7 Liv. 25.

Pythias, a Pythagorean philosopher, intimate with Damon, (vid. Phintias.V A

road which led from Thessaly to Tempe. xElian.

Pythius, aSyracusan, who defrauded Canius, i Roman knight, to whom he had sold h:s gardens, &c. Cic. de Off. 3, c. 14.—A surname of Apollo, which he had received for his hav ing conquered the serpent Python, or because he was worshipped at Delphi; called also Pytho. Macrob. 1, sat. l7.—Prohert. "2, el. 23, v. 16.

Pytho, the ancient name of the town of Delphi, which it received TM a-uflirflxi, because the serpent which Apollo killed rotted there. It was also called Parnassia Nape. {vid. Delphi.)

Pythocles, an Athenian descended from Aratus. It is said, that on his account, and tor his instruction, Plutarch wrote the life of Aratus.

Python, a native of Byzantium, in the age of Philip oi Macedonia. He was a great favourite of the monarch, who sent him to Thebes, when that city, at the instigation of Demosthenes, was going to take arms against Philip. Plut. in Dew.Diud. A celebrated serpent sprung from the mud and stagnated waters which remained on the surface of the earth after the deluge of Deucalion. Some, however, suppose that it was produced from the earth by Juno, and sent by the goddess to persecute Latona, who was then pregnant by Jupiter. Latona escaped his fury by means of her lover, who changed her into a quail during the remaining months of her pregnancy, and afterwards restored her to her original shape in the island of De

los, where she gave birth to Apollo and Di ana. Apollo, as soon as he was born, attacked the monster and killed him with his arrows, and in commemoration of the victory which he had obtained, he instituted the celebrated Pythian games. [Strabo says, that Python was no other than a famous villain whom Apollo d estroyed. Dickinson, in his "Delphi Phoenicizantes," maintains the Pv thou of the Greeks to be the Typhon of the Phoenicians; and the Typhon of the Phoeni

cians to be the Og of Scripture, while lit will have Apollo, who slew it, to have been Joshua.] Strab. 8.—Paut. 2, c. 7, 1. 10, c. 6,—HyginOvid. Met. 1, v. 438, fcc-X*can. 3, v. 134.

Ptthonissa, a name given to the priestess of Apollo's temple at Delphi. She is more generally called Pythia. (vid. Pythia.) The word Pythanissa was commonly applied to women who attempted to e*plain futurity.

Pttka, a part of Mount Ida.

QU

(ofcUADI, an ancient nation of Germany near the country of the Marcomanni, on the borders of the Danube, in modern Moravia. They rendered themselves celebrated by their opposition to the Romans, by whom they were often defeated, though not totally subdued. [The original seat ot the Quadi

QU

the city, received the name of Urbtnz When the Romans were masters of all Italy, four more were created, A. U. C. 498, to attend the pro-consuls and pro-prxtors in their provinces, and to collect all the taxes and customs which each particular district owed to the republic. They were called Pnva

seems to have been on the eastern banks of ciadrs. Sylla the dictator created 20 qua*

the Danube towards the TheU, as far as the settlements of the Gets. The incursions of

the Jazyges and the Gttx compelled them to that the quxstors ranked as senators in the

migrate to the west.] Tacit, in Germ. 42 and 43. An. 2, c. 63.

Quadratus, a surname given to Mercury, because some of his statues were square. The number 4, according to Plu tarch, was sacred to Mercury, because he was born on the 4th day of the month. Plut. in Symfios. 9.

Quadkifrons, or Quadriceps, a sur-j_.._ ,. ......

name of Janus, because he was represented'their possession when the armies were not* with four heads. He had a temple on the'an expedition. ITiey required every general Tarpeian rock, raised by L. Catulus. (before he triumphed to tell them, upon bis

Quastorks, two officers at Rome, first oath, that he had given a just account of the created A. U. C. 269. [There are two opi- number of the slain on both sides, and that nions respecting the origin of the Quxstoriai

tors, and J. Caesar 40, to fill up the vacant seats in the senate; from whence it is evident

senate. The quaestors were always appointed by the senate at Rome, and if any person was appointed to the quaetorship without their permission he was only called Proqucstor. The quxstores urbani were apparently of more consequence than the rest, the treasury was intrusted to their care, they kept an account of all receipts and disbursements, and the Roman eagles or ensigns were alway> in

office. According to the first, the institution of Quxstors seems to have been nearly as ancient as the city itself. They were first appointed by the kings according to Tacitus; and then by the consuls to tiic year 307, when they began to be elected by the people at the Comitia Tributa. Others say that two qucstors were chosen by the people from among the patricians, soon after the expul sion of the Tarquins, to take care of the treasury, according to a law passed by Va lerius Poplicola ] l'hey received their name, a quarendo, because they collected the revenues of the state, and had the total management of the public treasury. The quxstorship was the first office which could be had in the state. It was requisite that the candidates should be ?4 or 25 years of age, or, according to some, 27. [In the time <>f Cicero it seems to have been 31.] In the year 332, U. C. two more were added to the others, to attend the consuls, to take care of the pay of the armies abroad, and sell the plunder and booty which had been acquired by conquest. These were called Peregrini, whilst the others, whose employment was in

le had been saluted imfierator by the soldiers, i title which every commander generally received from his army after he had obtained a victory, and which was afterwards confirmed and approved by the senate. The city quxstors had also the care of the ambassadors, they lodged and received them. [They took care also of the funerals of those who were buried at the public expense. Augustus took from them the charge of the treasury and gave it to the prxtors, or to those who had been prxtors, but Claudius restored1 it to the quaestors. Afterwards prxfects of the treasury seem to have been appointed. Augustus, as a compensation for depriving them of the care of the treasury, allowed tM quiestors the charge of the public records, which the tediles had formerly exercise^ He introduced also a kind of quiestors, cau« Quastores Candidal), who used to earn tne messages of the emperor to the '*Da,e'j"~ who were called Candidati >>ecauscJI1i;' sued for higher preferment, which by the mterest of the emperor they were sure f0.0^ tain. Constantine instituted a new J""0 quaestors, called QuestorcsPatatii, wl|°*c, much the same with what we call thaw*

Iors.i The tent of the qusestor in the camp was called questorium. It stood near that of the general. Varro. dc L. L. 4.—Liv. 4, c. 43 —Dio. 43.

Querquetuljnus, a name given to mount Ccelius at Rome, from the oaks which grew there. Tacit. Jin. 4, c. 65.

Qcietis Fanum, a temple without the walls of the city of Rome. Quies was the goddess of rest. Her temple was situate near theColline gate. Liv. i.e. 4.—August. dcCtv.D.4,c.l6.

QUINCTIA PRATA. fid QulNTIA.

Quinctujst. a Roman consul who gained some victories over the iEqui and the Vnlsci, and obtained a triumph for subduing Pre; #neste. A Roman celebrated for his frugality, [vid. Cincinnatus.] Hirpiuus. vid.

Hirpinus.

Quindecimviri, an orderof priests whom Tarquin the proud appointed to take care of the Sibyline books. They were originally two, but afterwards the number was increased to ten, to whom Svlla added five more, whence their name. (yid. Decemviri am! Duumv.ii ]

Quujojjatkia, a festival in honour of Minerva at Rome, which continued during five days. The beginning of the celebration was the 18th of March. The first day sacrifices and oblations were presented, but, however, without the effusion of blood. On the second, third, and fourth days, shows of gladiators were exhibited, and on the filth day there was a solemn procession through the streets of the city. On the days of the celebration, scholars obtained holidays, and it was usual for them to offer prayers to Minerva for learning and wisdom, which the goddess patronised; and on their return to school, they presented their master with a gift which has received the name of Mmrrvul. They were much the same as the Panathenaca of the Greeks. Plays were also acted and dis nutations were held on subjects of literature. They received their name from the^w days which were devoted for the celebration.

Quinouenxales Ludi, games celebrated by the Lilians in honour of Homer ever) fifth year. There were also some games among the Romans which bore this name. They are the same as the Actian games. vid. Actia.

Quintia Pkata, a place on the borders of the Tiber near Rome, which had been cultivated by the great Cincinnatus. Liv. 3, c. 26.

Quintilianus, Marcus Fabius, a celebrated rhetorician, born [about.the year 42 of the Christian era, in the reign of the emperor Claudius. He is supposed to have been descended from a family originally Spanish, but that his father or grandfather had settled at Rome. The place of his birth is not clearly ascertained, but it seems certain that he was educated at the capital, where he studied rhetoric under Domitius Afer, a celebrated orator. The opinion of some that 4M

he was born at Calaguris in Spain, is entitled to little if any credit.] He opened a school of rhetoric at Rome, and was the first who obtained a salary from the state as being a public teacher. After he had remained twenty years in this laborious employment and obtained the merited applause of the most illustrious •Romans, not only as a preceptor, but as a pleader at the bar, Quintilian, by the permission of the emperor Domitian, retired to enjoy the fruits of his labours and industry. In his retirement he assiduously dedicated his time to the study ot literature, and wrote a treatise on the causes of the corruption of eloquence. [This has not come down to us.] Some time after, at the pressing solicitations of his friends, he wrote his institutional oraloria, the most perfect and complete system of oratory extant. It is divided into 12 books, in which the author explains from observations, as well as from experience, what can constitute a good and perfect orator, and in this he not only mentions the pursuits and the employments of the rhetorician, but he also speaks of his education, and begins with the attention which might to be shewn him even in his cradle. He was appointed preceptor to the two young princes whom Domitian destined for his successors on the throne, but the pleasure which the rhetorician received from the favours and the attention of the emperor, and from the success which his writings met in the world, was embittered by the loss of his wife and of his two sons. It is said that Quintilian was poor in his retirement, and that his indigence was relieved by the liberality ol his pupil, Pliny the younger. He died A. 1). 9.5. [The style ot Quintilian is said by critics to exhibit tokens of the deterioration of the Latin tongue, and of the introduction of a false taste. It wants the ease and simplicity of good prose, and is in many instances better adapted to the poet or the orator than to the philosopher, the Clitic, or the rhetorician.] His institutions were discovered in the 1415th year of the Christian era, in an old tower of a monastery at St. Gal, by Poggio Bracciolini, a native of Florence. The best editions ol Quintilian arc those of Gesner, 4to. Gotting. . 38; of L. Bat. 8vo. cum notis variorum, 1665; of Gibson, 4ta Oxon. 1693; that of Rollm republished in 8vo. London, 1792, [and that of Scalding, Lips. 1798-1816, 4vols. 8vo.]

Quintillus, M. Aurelius Claudius, a brother of Clau.lius who proclaimed himself emperor, and 17 days after destroyed himself by opening his veins in a bath, when he heard that Aurelian was marching against him, about the 270th year of the Christian era.

Quintus Curtius Rufus, a Latin historian, who flourished as some suppose, [either during the reign of Claudius, A. D 54, or under that of Vespasian, A. D. 69.] He has rendered himself known by the history of the reign of Alexander the Great. This history fill

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was divided into 10 books, of which the two
first, the end of the fifth, and the beginning of
the sixth are lost. This work is admired for
its elegance, the purity, and the floridness of
the style. It is however blamed for great
anachronisms, and glaring mistakes in geo
graphy, as well as history Freinshemius
has written a supplement to Curtius, in which
he seems to have made some very satisfactory
amends for the loss which the history has
suffered, by a learned collection of facts and
circumstances from all the different authors
who have employed their pen in writing an
account of Alexander and of his Asiatic
conquests. Some suppose that the historiai
is the same with that Curtius Ruins who
lived in the age of Claudius, under whom he
was made consul. This Rufus was born of an
obscure family, and he attended a Roman
quaestor in Africa, when he was met at Adru
metuin by a woman above the human shape,
as he was walking under the porticoes in the
middle of the day. This extraordinary cha-
racter addressed the indigent Roman, and
told him that the day would come in which
lie should govern Africa with consular power
This strange prophecy animated Rufus; he
repaired to Rome, where he gained the fa
vours of the emperor, obtained consular
honours, and at last retired as pro-consul to
Africa, where he died. The best editions of
Curtius are those of Elzevir, 8vo. Amst. 167
of Snakenburgh 4to. L. Bat. 1724; and of
Barbou, 12mo. Paris, 1757. [The edition of
Snakenburgh is decidedly the best.] Tacit-
Ann. 11, c. 23, 8cc.

Quikinalia, festivals in honour of Romu lus surnamed Quirinus, celebrated on the

13th of the calends of March

Quirinahs, a hill at Rome, originallv'4, oil. 14, v. 1. Varro. de L. L. called Agonius, and afterwards Cotlmus.l, c. 13.—Ovid. Fast. 2, v. 479.

The name of Quirinalis it obtained from the nhabitants of Cures, who settled there under their king Tatius. It was also called Caba'inus, from two marble statues of horses, me of which was the work of Phidias, and the other of Praxiteles. Liv. 1, c. 44 — Ovid Fast. 375. Met. 14, v. 8 *>.——One if the gates of Rome near mount Quirinalis.

Qcirinus, a surname of Romulus when he iad been made a god by his superstitious subjects, i The name is derived either from Quiris, i Sabine term for a spear, or from Cure*,

i Sabine city.] Ovid. Fast. 2, v. 475.

Sulpitius, a Roman consul born at Lanuvium. Though descended of an obscure family, he was raised to the greatest honours by Augustus. He was appointed governor of Syria, ■ and was afterw ards made preceptor to Caius, the grandson of the emperor. He married /Emilia Lepida, the grand-daughter of Sylla and Pompey, but some time after he shamefully repudiated her. He died A. D. 22. Tacit. Ann. 3, &c.

Quirites, a name given to the Roman citizens either because they admitted into their city the Sabines, who inhabited the town of Cures, and who on that account were called Quirites, [or from Quiris, a Sabine term for a spear.] After this union,the two nations were indiscriminately and promiscuously called by that name. It is, however, to be observed that the word was confined to Rome, and not used in tlu- armies, as we find some of the generals applying it only to such of their soldiers as they dismissed or disgraced. Even some of the emperors appeased a sedition, by calling their rebellious soldiers by the degrading appellation of Quirites. tiueton. Ctes. 70.— I^am/irid. 53.—Lucan. 5, v. 558.—Horat.

4.—Liv.

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JkvABIRIUS, C. a Roman knight, who lentlthree centuries instituted by Romulus. Af

an immense sum of meney to Ptolemy Au letes, king of Egypt. The monarch afterwards, not only reuised to repay him, but even con fined him, and endangered his life. Rabin us escaped from Egypt with difficulty, but at his return to Rome, he was accused by the senate of having lent money to an African prince, for un awful purposes. He was ably defende.l by Cicero, and escaped with difficulty. Cic. firo Rab. A Latin poet in the

age of Augustus, who wrote, besides satires and epigrams, a poem on the victory which the emperor had gained over Antony at Ac

tium. [Another, accused and condemned

before the Decemviri for having slain in
sedition, 36 years before, A. Saturninus. He
appealed to the people, and was defended by
Cicero, but escaped only by Metellus taking
away the standard from the Janiculum, and
thus dissolving the assembly.]
Ramkes, or Rhamnenses, one of the

ter the Roman people had been divided into three tribes, the monarch elected out of each 100 young men of the best and noblest families, with which he formed three companies of horse. One of them was called Rhamnenses or Ramnes, either from the tribe of which it was chosen, or from Romulus. Another was called Tatienses or Titienses, from Titus Tatius, and tlie third Luceres; [either from Lucumo an Etrurian,or'from lucus. the grove which Romulus made an asylum. The Rhamnenses consisted of Romans, and inhabited the Palatine hill, the Tatienses of Sabines, and dwelt on the Capitoline hill; the Luceres were composed of all the foreigners who came successively to Rome, after the union with the Sabines. This arrangement, however, was subsequently altered, vid. Equites.j Varr. de L. L. 4, c. 9.—Liv. 1, c. 13.—Horat. de Art.fioet.UOPiut. in Rom. Ravenna, a town of Italy on the Adriatic,

which became celebrated under the Roman
emperors for its capacious harbour, which
could contain 250 ships, and for being for some
time the seat of the western empire. It was
difficult of access by land, as it stood on a
small peninsula; and so ill supplied with wa-
ter, that it sold at a higher price than wine,
according to M.trtial. The emperors kept
one of their fleets there, and the other at Mi
senum, on the other side of Italy. It was
founded by a colony of Thessalians, or, ac
cording to others, of Sabines. [In the time
ofStrabo.it was situate in the midst of a marsh
and attached to the continent, but in process
of time the Po accumulated mud and sand
so that the land was raised and the sea re
moved to a greater distance. Honorius made
this city the place of his residence both be
fore and after Alaric had captured and burnt
Rome. When Odoacer made a conquest of Ita-
ly he resided at Ravenna, and sustained here
a siege of three years, at the termination of
which he was taken and slain by Thendoric.
This latter monarch fixed the seat of his em
pirehere, andgreatly adorned and embellish
ed the place. Here also resided the exarch
or governor appointed by the emperor
the east when Italy was in possession
of the Lombards.] It is now fallen from
its former grandeur; and is a wretch
ed town, situate at the distance of about
three miles from the sea, and surrounded
with swamps and marshes. [In the time of
the Romans it was seated on a kind of bay
The mud thrown up by the tide has formed a
tract of land, which is cultivated, and on which
the city itself has been enlarged towards the
sea. The air is insalubrious, but has been
somewhat amended by conveying along the
sides of the city the rivers Merit me and Ron
co, which carry off the foetk! water from the
marshy grounds.] Strab. 5 —Suet, in Aug.
9—Plin. 36, c. 12.—Mela, 2, c. 4.—Martial.
3, ep. J 3, v. 8, &c.

Raur Aci, a peopleof Gaul, whose chief town is now August on the Rhine. Ctt*. G. i,c.5.

Reate, a-pleasant town [in the country of the Sabines, on the nver Velinus, a branch of the Nar.] It was built, as some suppose before the Trojan war. Cybele was the chief deity of the place. It was famuus for its

asses. Strab. 5.Dionys. Hal. 1 Varro.de

R. R. 1>—Uv. 25, c. 7, 1.26, c. H, 1. 28, c. 45. Cic. Cat: JV. D. 2, c. 2.

Redicolus, a deity whose name is derived from the word redtre, (to return.; The Romans raised a temple to the imaginary deity on the spot where Annibal had retired when he approached Rome, as if to besiege it. Festus de V tig.

Redones, a nation among the Amorici, now the people of Rennes and St. Motoct, in Britanny. Ctes. B. G. 2, c. 41.

Regill.*, or Regillum, a town in the country ot the Sabines in Italy, about 20 miles from Rome, celebrated for a battle which was fought there, A. U. C. 258, between 24,000 Romans, and 40,000 Etrurians, who

were headed by the Tarquins. TheRomans obtained the victory, and scarce 10.000 of the enemy escaped from the field of battle. Castor and Pollux, according to some accounts, wereseen mounted on white horses, and fighting at the head of the Roman army. IJv. 2, c. 16.—Dionns. Hal. 5.—Plat, in Cor.—Pal Max. l.—Flor. I. Suet. Tib. I.

Regillianus, Q. Nonius, a Dacian who entered the Roman armies, and was raised to the greatest honours under Valerian. He was elected emperor by the populace, who were dissatisfied with Gallienus, and was soon after murdered by his soldiers, A. D. 262.

Regillus, a small lake of Latium, whose waters fall into the Anio, at the east of Rome. The dictator Posthumius defeated the Latin army near it. Liv. 2, c. 19.

Regium Lepidum, a town of Modem, now Regio, at the south of the Po. Plin. 3,c. 15—Cic. U,/am. 5, I. 13, ep. 7.

M. Attilius Regulus, a consul during the first Punic war. He reduced Brundusiiim, and in his second consulship he took 64 irid sunk 30 gallies of the Carthaginian fleet, on the coast of Sicily. Afterwards he landed in Africa, and so rapid was his success, that in a short time he defeated three generals, and made himself master of about 00 places of consequence on the coast. The Carthaginians sued for peace, but the conqueror refused to grant it, and soon after he was defeated in a battle by Xanthippus, and ;0,000 of his men were left on the field of battle, and 15.000 taken prisoners. Regulus wastin the number of the captives, and he was carried in triumph to Carthage He was afterwards sent by the enemy to Rome, to propose an accommodation, and an exchange of prisoners; and if his commission was unsuccessful he was bound by the most solemn oaths to return to Carthage without delay. When he came to Rome, Regulus dissuaded his countrymen from accepting the terms which the enemy proposed, and when his opinion had had due influence on the senate, Regulus retired to Carthage agreeable to his engagements The Carthaginians were told that their offers of peace had been rejected at Rome by tlie means of Regulus, and therefore they prepared to punish him with the greatest severity. His eye-brows were cut, and he was exposed for some days to the excessive heat of the meridian sun, and afterwards confined in a barrel, whose sides were every where filled with large iron spikes, till" he died in the greatest agonies. His sufferings were heard at Rome, and the senate permitted his widow to inflict whateever punishment she pleased on some of the most illustrious captives of Carthage, who were in their hands. She confined them also in presses filled with sharp iron points, and was so exquisite in her cruelty, that the senate at last interfered, and stopped the barbarity of her punishments. Regulus diet! about 251 years before Christ, Sit. 6, v. 319. Fkr. 2, c 3.—Horat.2, od,5.—Cie.deOff.

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