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by the Ivory Coast (French). The colony has a coast-line of about 350 miles. The area, inclusive of Adansi, Ashanti, and the Northern Territories, may be put at about 120,000 square miles, and the population is 1.606,965, of whom about 500 are Europeans. The territories in the hinterland to the north of Ashanti were made a separate district in '97 under the name of the "Northern Territories" (area about 36,000 sq. m.), and are administered by a Commissioner. The Niger Convention, drawn up by the Anglo-French Commission sitting at Paris, and signed June isth, '98, and the agreement with Germany of Nov. isth, '09, settled the boundaries of the hinterland to the west and the north. The native state of Athaoti lies inland, at the back of the central portion of the colony, and is administered by a Chief Commissioner (capital Kumasi, pop. 5940). Accra is the administrative centre of tne colony, and has a population of 17,892. The Government includes a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council of 9, ^ of whom are non-official. For defence ihere is the Gold Coast regiment of the West African Frontier Force, 1 458 strong, with headq uarters in Asbanti. The products are chiefly palm-oil, gold, palm kernels, rubber, cocoa, timber, etc. The country is very rich as regards both minerals and agriculture. The gold export in igo6 was .£822,025, a large proportion coming from the mines of the Ashanti Gold fie Ids Corporation. Cotton is grown, and its cultivation is now encouraged. A railway runs from Sekondi via Tarkwa and Obuassi to Kuniasi, a distance of i6S miles. See Gold Fields. Governor, Sir J. P. Rodger, K.C.M.G. (salary
Gounoil: Colonial Stmtary. Major H. Bryan, C.M.G.— Attorney- General, Willouerhby Osborne. — Treasurer, C. Riby Williams, C.M.G.— Officer Commanding Gold Coast Regiment Wist African Frontier force, Lieut.-Col. C. H. P. Carter, C.M.G.
Chief Commissioner of Ashanti, F. C. Fuller, C.M.G.
Chief Commissioner Northern Territories, Lie uf.Col. A. E. Watherston, C.M.G., R.E.
Northern Nigeria. A British Protectorate constituted Jan. ist, 1900, over territories up till then in tne occupation of the Royal Niger Company. The northern boundary, settled by the Anglo-French Agreement 1904 and the Convention of May agth, 1906, is the French Soudan, from Barua on Lake Chad to a point on the Niger ten miles north of Ho. The western boundary is the French territory in the hinterland of Dahomey. The southern boundary is formed by Southern Nigeria. The eastern boundary is that of the Cameroons, running north-east to Lake Chad. The Protectorate includes the old Fulah Empire, of which the Sultan of Sokoto is the head. The Haussa •tatea of the Fulah Empire are Mahometan, but many of the tribes in the Protectorate are pagans. "The Niger Company, Ltd.," carry on trading, mining, and banking operations, the working oi forests, and the cultivation of indigo, tobacco, and other indigenous products. A High Commissioner controls the administration of the Protectorate, which has been divided into the following provinces— viz., Sokoto,
Bornu, Banchi, Zana, Borgu, Kont agora, Nupe, in, Kabba, Bassa, Nassarawa. Muri, Yola, o, each under a Resident. The Govern
mem utilises the native chiefs, and establishes Native Courts, wherever possible, under the supervision of the BeiidenU. There are also Piovincial Courts held by the Residents themselves, with a Supreme Court which serves as a Court of Appeal for both Northern and Southern Nigeria. The ist and and foot and 3rd mounted infantry battalions West African Frontier Force, consisting of Haussas and Yorubas with a few other natives, constitute the military force, and have a strength of 3600, with 177 European officers and noncommissioned officers, 2 batteries of artillery, with sappers, and medical and transport staff. The principal station is Lokoja, at the junction of the Benue and the Niger, but the headquarters arc at Zungeru, up the Kaduna River. A port for the Protectorate is reserved at the mouth of the Forcados river in Southern Nigeria, with Burutu, which is used as a depot and transhipment station. The chief towns in the Protectorate are Wurno (capital of Sokoto). Gando, Sokoto, Kano, Bida, Yola, Yakuba, Zaria, and Illorin. The country is fertile, and its agricultural resources are undoubtedly creat. The inland regions are said to be fairly healthy, and produce cotton, indigo, rubber, hides, and ivory, while minerals are stated to abound in certain parts. In 1907 it was decided to build a pioneer railway, 400 miles long, from Baro to Bida, by Zungeru, and thence to Zaria and Kano. Area 258,000 sq. m. ; pop. 8,78^,183.
High Commissioner, Lieut.-Col. Sir E. P. C. Girouard, K.C.M G. (salary ,£3000). Senior Resident, Sir W. Wallace, K.C.M.G.—Secretary to Government, M. Beresford, LS.O.— Treasurer, S. T. Harrisson.—Chief Justice, Sir M. R. Menendez.—Commandant of Northern Nigeria Regiment, West African Frontier Force. Col. S. Hasler.
Southern Nigeria. By an Order in Council, dated Feb. i6th, 1906, the name of the colony of Lagos was altered to Southern Nigeria, and the administration of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate was placed under that of the new colony, which is now known as the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. The town and island of Lagos lie on the coast of the Bight of Benin, 150 miles east of the Gold Coast. Lagos has a population of 42,000, of whom 400 are Europeans. The Governor is assisted by an Executive Council and a Legislative Council of 10 members, the latter including 5 unofficial members. Resident officers are stationed at Ibadan and other towns in the interior, with a Superintendent of Native Affairs at Abeokuta. The population of the latter town is estimated at 150.000, and of Ibadan at 300,000. The military force consists of about 1900 men of the West African Frontier Force. Much has been done of late to open up the interior to British commerce, and a new rubber industry and cotton planting are being actively developed. The chiefexporUare palm oilandkernels, mahogany, gums, ivory, and rubber. A railway runs from Lagos to Abeokuta and Ibadan (133) miles), thence to Oshogbo, 6a miles farther, and is 61 miles to Ilorin in Northern
universities. The Governor-General appoints the judge* of the Superior Courts and county courts in the provinces, and over all is the Supreme Court at Ottawa, with appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction throughout the Dominion.
See Army, British. VII.. p. 38. as to the Militia System.
Canada is the largest of all the British possessions. The climate varies, being in the east cold but dear in winter, warm in summer; while the climate of the British Columbia coast resembles that of England. The winter is dry, healthy, and invigorating. The mineral deposits axe practically inexhaustible, particularly coal. iron, nickel, copper, and gold. The mineral output of 1905 included gold, $14,486,833; nickel, 87,550.536; silver, 33.6o5.957; copper, $7,430,451; coal, 8^,658,615. The fisheries on both the Atlantic and Pacific counts arc extremely valuable, and the timber supply is very rich. Manufactures are carried on extensively, and employ about 400,000 persons. Agriculture is, however, the main industry of the Dominion, and in Manitoba and the North-West the wheat-growing as well as general farming capabilities are immeasurable. Ranching has in late years also proved profitable. There has been a tremendous tide of immigration flowing into the North-West, especially during the last few years. For 1906 the number of immigrants was 215,913, of whom 08,257 were British and 63,781 were from the States.
There are 1349 papers, of which 117 are daily papers, published in the Dominion, including the Toronto Globe, the Government organ; the Montreal Star; the Toronto Telegram, an evening paper, owned by Mr. Ross Robertson: tbe Montreal Gazette, which represents the old type of Canadian Conservatism; the Montreal Herald, a Laurier journal; and the Montreal La Press*, issued daily and weekly for French readers.
There were in 1005 sixty-five railway lines working in the Dominion of Canada, with a total mileage of 30,601. The Government own about 1510 miles of railway, and a magnificent system of canals. In 1905 there were 767 miles of electric railways. The principal railway systems are those of the Canadian Pacific, with 8ao8 miles; Grand Trunk of Canada, 3570 miles; Intercolonial, 1449 miles; Canadian Northern, 1880 miles. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, which was approved by Parliament in 1904, and is being built with Government aid, will extend across the Dominion from Moncton, New Brunswick, on the east coast, to a terminus on Kaien Island, at the mouth of the Skeena River, on the Pacific Coast. Its total length will be 3500 miles.
By the Tariff Act "97 a rebate of taj per cent, of the Customs Duties was granted to countries whose tariff was judged as favourable to Canada as the Canadian tariff so reduced, and the United Kingdom and New South Wales were at once given the benefit of the reduction, with the result that the concession had to be extended to all countries entitled to most-favoured-nation treatment in Canada. The Commercial Treaties of the United Kingdom with Germany and Belgium were, however, denounced in view of this, and on Aug. ist, '98, a rebate of 35 per cent, was given to the United Kingdom and the West Indies, and to such other countries in the British Empire as accorded reciprocal treatment to Canada. In
1000 the preferential treatment was increased from 25 per cent, to 33$ per cent.
Under the Budget proposals introduced Nov. agth, 1906, a new tariff was established on a new system. There is a general tariff substantially the same as tbe old tariff. The British Preferential Tariff was altered from a flat rate and particularised for every item imported. The Canadian Government said that on the whole the preference to Great Britain was larger than before. An Intermediate Tariff was also set up for application to countries giving reciprocity to Canada. In order to quality for the British Preference, imports must have 25 per cent, of their value made up of British labour.
Re«nue, 1904-5. j£»4.526i573 j 1905-6. ^16,027,872; expenditure, 1904-5, £11,431,536; 1905-6,^13,443,128; export*, 1004-5,243,890,576; igo6-7, £54,441,301; imports, 1904-51 jt53i28».4a6; 1906-7, ^08,074,949; public debt, ,£75,020,071.
Governor-General. The Right Hun. Earl Grey. G.C.M.G.
Ministry: Premier and President of Privy Council. Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G.C.M.G., K.C.—Justice, Hon. A. B. Aylesworth, K.C. — Trade and Commerce, Right Hon. Sir R. J. Cartwright, G.C.M.G., P.C.— Postmaster-Genera^ ana Minister of Labourt
Hon. R. Lemieux. Secretary of State. Hon.
R. W. Scott, K.C.— Finance, Hon. W. S. fielding.—Marine and Fisheries, Hon. L. P. Brodeur.—Railways and Canals, Hon. W. Pugsley.—Public Works, Hon. G. P. Graham. —Militia and Defence, Hon. Sir F. W. Borden, K.C.M.G. — Interior and ^SuperintendentGeneral of Indian Affairs, Hon. Frank Oliver. —Agriculture, Hon. Sydney Fisher.— Customs, Hon. W. Paterson.—Inland Revenue, Hon. W. Templeman.—Solicitor-General (not in Cabinet), Hon. J. Bureau.
High Commissioner for the Dominion of Canada, Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G., 17 and 19, Victoria Street, London, S.W.— Secretary, W. L. Griffith.—City Trade Branch, 73, Baainghall Street, E.G.
.Political f» rf i>*.
The two chief political parties are known as Conservatives and Liberals. From the date of confederation, in 1867, the Liberals were only in power once till their signal victory in '96. The late Sir John Macdonaldj the leader of the Conservative party, held office from '67 to '91^ with the exception of five years, when a Liberal administration under Mr. Mackenzie was in power. When Sir John Macdonald died he was succeeded by Sir John Abbott, and he by Sir John Thompson, on whose death Sir Mackenzie Bowell followed him (Dec. iath. '95)- The Manitoba Schools question aud other questions shook the Government's position during '95 and '96, and after some internal dissensions Sir Charles Tupper became Premier on the eve of the dissolution of Parliament in April '96. At the general election which followed there were finally elected 118 Liberals, 86 Conservatives, and 8 Independents, the latter being on the whole supporters of the Liberals. A wave of Imperial and loyul feeling at the time of the Jubilee in '97 had as one of its results the institution of a preferential tariff in favour of the mothercountry, which ultimately gave British goodi an advantage of 33^ per cent, over other imports. The result of the general election in 1900 was the return of the Liberals to power with an increased majority. When the 1904 general election came on, Sir Wilfred Laurier's Government had a majority of 52 in a House of 914. The chief issue was the railway policy of the country. The returns showed that the result of the election was to give the Government a large majority. Ontario continued to return a majority of Conservatives, but Quebec and the other provinces gave overwhelming support in the Ministry.
An interesting debate took place on a pro* posal to limit preference on British goods to those landed 'at Canadian ports (March 7th). Sir W. Laurier took the line that when the Grand Trunk Pacific gave them another transcontinental railway, they would be able to adopt such a policy, and carried an amendment making the proposal operative at a date to be named by the Governor in council. Sir W. Laurier definitely announced that he should attend the Imperial Conference (March 27lh). At first he had hesitated, a strong minority of his supporters urging him to remain in Canada; but Air. Borden, the leader of the Opposition, promised to facilitate the work of Parliament in order that the Premier might leave. Sir W. Laurier in his speech stated the Canadian objection to the creation of a permanent Imperial organisation in London, and on the question of trade relations said their policy was the same in 1907 as in 1903. They had given the mother country a preference, and if it suited them to reciprocate they were prepared to discuss the question and to go a step further than they had jet gone. But that policy had not met with favour in Great Britain, and it was not for them to press it on the Biitish people. Every one of the nations composing the British Empire must be allowed to determine for itself what was best for itself. It suited Canada to be tinged with protection more than perhaps he liken to have it tingfd; and his ideal was a universal system of Free Trade between all the parts which composed the British Empire, but such a system was not possible at ihc present time. It was arranged that during the absence of the Premier Sir Richard Cartwright should be acting Premier and Mr. Scott acting Secretary of State. Sir W. Laurier was given a great reception (July aoth) on his return from the Imperial Conference.
Sir Frederick Borden in explaining the Militia appropriations for the current year (April 3rd}, announced the institution of a system of universal and uniform physical training for young children throughout the schools of Canada, and said a sysi< 1-1 of military training would probably be introduced into the universities.
A serious riot directed against the Japanese and Chinese broke out in Vancouver (Sept. 7th), largely organised by the American Labour agitators, but supported by the local rowdies of the city. The Dominion authorities at once expressed their regret, and took steps to secure that the provincial administration should deal with the outbreak.
The Manitoba Legislature passed a bill (Feb. 8th) providing that all schools in the province should fly the Union Jack every
teaching day, or if the weather would not permit, display it prominently in the schooL
JProrinee* of Canada.
British Columbia, Canada's maritime province on the Pacific, extends from the United States boundary to 60° N, lat., and is bounded on the east by the province of Alberta. Ar-a. 395,610 sq. m.; pop. 250,000 (1006), including about 29,000 Indians, 15,000 Chinese, and 5000 Japanese. Minerals consist chiefly of coal, copper, silver, and gold. Vancouver Island contains large deposits of g^ood steam coal, and there are other large deposits in Kast Kootenay and other parts of the province. Gold has been found in the Kootenay, Cariboo, and Cassiar districts, near the Columbia river, in great abundance. The town of Rossland became the centre of the district. An important industry is carried on in tinned salmon. There are also valuable timber and fruit-growing industries established. Capital, Victoria., on Vancouver Island, pop. 25,000. Vancouver City (pop. .45,000), on the mainland, is the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The government of the colony is administered by a Lieut.-Governor and a responsible Ministry. There is a Legislative Assembly consisting of 43 members. Manhood suffrage prevails in provincial elections.
Lieu tenant-Governor, Hon. lames Dunsmuir (salary 89000).—Premier andMinisteroJ Minex, Hon. Richard McBride. — Attorney-General, H on. F. J. Fulton, K.C.—Education, Hon. W. Manson.—Z,a«rfs and Works, Hon. R. F. Green.—President of Council, Hon. F. L. Carter Cotton.—Finance, Hon. R. G. Tatlow.
Manitoba was formerly known as the Bed River Settlement, and entered the Dominion in 1870. It takes its name from Lake Manitoba, which is situated 60 miles S.W. of Lake Winnipeg. Ana, 72,864 sq. m.; pop. 360,590 (1906). Capital, Winnipeg (pop. over 100,000). at the junction of the Assmiboine and Red rivers. The climate is healthy, but there are great extremes of temperature. Soil very fertile, and yields abundantly, being peculiarly adapted to the growth of wheat. Large numbers of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine are raised. Coal abounds, gold is worked in the east, iron ore on the islands of Lake Winnipeg, and the northern part is heavily timbered. In 1905 there were 45,260 farms, and farm property was valued at £45,000,000, Executive vested in a Lieutenant-Governor appointed by the Governor-General of the Dominion, and a Ministry. There is a Legislative Assembly, numbering; 40 members, elected by districts for four years.
Lieutenant-Governor, The Hon. Sir D. H. McMillan, K.C.M.G. (salary $10,000).
Executive Council: Premier, Hon. R. P.
Public Works, Hon. R. Rogers—AttorneyGeneral, Hon. Colin H. Campbell.—Prov. Sec.. Hon. D. II. McFadden.
New BniUBWlCk lies along the Bay of Fundy. Ana, 27,700 sq. m.; pop. 331,120. Capital Fredericton, pop. 7000; chief commercial centre Bt. John, with a population of 40,711. Divided into fifteen counties. The chief navigable rivers are the St. John, the Restigouche and the Miramichi. Administered by a Li cut.-Govern or and Executive Council. The people elect a Legislative Assembly of 46 members. Coal, iron, and antimony abound, and there are fine