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rosea, some good specimens of the fragrant and pretty Trichopilia suavis, a plant of Neobenthamia gracilis with a head of pure white flowers, varieties of Odontoglossum Pescatorei, &c. (Silver Banksian Medal.)
Messrs. Moore, Ltd., Rawdon, near Leeds, staged a nice group, principally of fine Cypripediums, among which were the leading forms of C. aureum, including strong specimens of Monarch and virginale; an exceptionally fine form of C. Charlesianum, and a good plant of the allied and favourite C. Ville de Paris; C. Saturn and a very pretty and finely-coloured hybrid between C. Leeanum Albertianum and ('. insigne Chantinii. Also in the group were several showy hybrid Odontoglossoms, one having the inner halves of the segments almost entirely of a rose-purple colour. Among species the singular Bulbophyllum comosum, with two drooping heads of hairy white flowers, and the singular yellow and purple Maxillaria porphyrostele were noted. (Silver Banksian Medal.)
Messrs. Heath & Sons, Cheltenham, had an interesting group of Cypripediums, Cattleya Percivaliana, &c. Among the Cypripediums were the handsome C. Mrs. Wm. Mostyn, Chardwax variety; the finely-shaped C. Aureole (I.athamianum giganteum X Boxallii) with flowers of thick texture, the emerald-green dorsal sepal bearing rows of blackish spots, the margin being white; C. Charlesworthii roseum, an insigne variety, with white dorsal sepal, the lower half delicately tinged with lilac-pink from a small green base; good C. Mons. de Curte, and many fine plants of C. Leeanum giganteum. (Silver Banksian Medal.)
Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Enfield, staged a neat group, in which were Cypripedium aureum, Surprise, CEdippe, virginale, Hyeanum, and others. C. Thompsonianum, C. Swinburnei magnificum, and other Cypripediums; four plants of the bright rose Laelia Gouldiana, Odontoglossum blandum, varieties of Oncidium ornithorhynchum, one being white tinged with lilac, Arpophyllum spicatum, Cymbidium Wiganianum, tSrc. (Silver Banksian Medal.)
Francis Wki.lesi.f.y, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), showed the new and fine Cypripedium Rajah (Io grande X Swinburnei magnificum), a large flower of very thick substance and attractive colouring. The large ovate acuminate dorsal sepal is white on the upner half, greenish-white at the base, from which radiate small blackish lines. The middle area is bright rose, with darker lines. Petals large and broad, dark rose-red, with several large raised black spots furnished with hairs on the margin. Lip large, brownish rose.
Messrs. Linden & Co., Brussels, showed Odontoglussum crispum "Jean Linden,'' the magnificently-blotched home-raised variety, which was illustrated in the Gardtnrrs' Chronicle, December 22, 1906, p. 418, but now greatly improved; the pretty O. Notteanum (I.oochristiense x Wilckeanum); O. exultans variety formosum (crispum x excellens), a large yellow flower, handsomely blotched with redbrown; and three Cypripediums, the resu't of seeding from forms of C. insigne.
Award Of Mf.rit. Cypripedium Fairrieanum, Cooison's variety, from Norman C. Cookson, Esq., Oakwood, Wylam (gr. Mr. H. J. Chapman). A superb variety, and the darkest which has yet appeared, almost the whole of the dorsal sepal being of a deep claret colour, only a little white showing through in small patches at the base. The reverse of the dorsal sepal is coloured like the face, and the rest of the flower is also very dark. Mr. Cookson showed another equally dark form with an undeveloped bloom.
Cypripedium /•". Sander, from Francis Wei.I.esley, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins). A very remarkable Cypripedium, the origin of which is somewhat obscure. The leaves, which are narrow and pointed, have a very thin dark-green reticulation. The flower, which is of fine form, has a showy and flat dorsal sepal of pale emerald-green, densely blotched with large glossy chocolate-brown blotches, the upper part being white with purplish spots, as in some of the best forms of C. nitens. Petals and lip well-formed, honey yellow tinged and veined with chocolate-purple. Staminode larg-, yellow.
Cymbidium Gatlonense (Lowianum X Tracyanumj, from Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Keigate. A very worthy production, with flowers as large as those of C. Tracyanum, but deeply coloured and marked as in the best C. giganteum. Sepals and petals greenish-gold colour, closely lined with purplish red. Lip broad, cream-white, marked with red, and having a hairy disc as in C. Tracyanum. The cross is interesting, as it disproves the supposition that the natural hybrid C. I'Ansonii is of this parentage.
Fruit and Vegetable Committee.
Present: George Bunyard, Esq. (chairman), and Messrs. W. Bates, Alex. Dean, W. Pope, R. Lye, Geo. Keif, 11. Parr, J. Davis, G. Reynolds, James Vert, Owen Thomas, C. G. A. Nix, W. Poupart, Jos. Cheal, and A. R. Allan.
Messrs. J. Pekd & Son, nurserymen, Roupell Park, West Norwood, displayed a considerable number of Apples, showing signs of careful attention to their cultivation in their generally fine size and freedom from blemishes. There were very fine specimens of the varieties Bismarck, Withington Fillbasket, Lord Hindlip, Dumelow's Seedling, Blenheim Pippin, Lord Derby, and Alfriston. (Silver Knightian Medal.)
A splendid exhibit of Potatos, chiefly kidneyshaped varieties, was shown by Mrs. Denison, Little Gaddesden (gr. Mr. A. G. Gentle). Their only fault lay in the general large size of the tubers. Other exhibits from the same garden were bulbs of Cocoanut, Ailsa Craig, and Record Onions. These were simply enormous. (Silver-Gilt Knightian Medal.)
the satirical sense, as they were actually taken by sunlight and toned down.
A series of six stereoscopic views by the lecturer of some of Messrs. Waterer's Rhododendrons was shown in the Hall, and revealed apparently the very flowers themselves, the double pictures giving an impression of substance which the lecturer regretted could not be imparted to views upon the screen.
LECTURE ON SELF-COLOURED PHOTOGRAPHY. The lecture given at this meeting was one on "Self-Coloured Photography of Switzerland and Swiss Flora," given by Mr. T. Ernest Waltham, and illustrated some new and combined processes of his own invention for obtaining photographs in purely natural colours. The Chairman (Mr. A. W. Sutton, F.L.S.) expressed the hope that the lecturer would kindly give his hearers some idea of his mode of working, for their possible guidance, but this, in view of impending patents, was, Mr. Waltham explained, hardly practicable. The slides indicated by the title of the lecture were preceded by a number of others, and illustrated firstly a magnificent series of floral photographs embracing Cactus Dahlias, Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, representing fine types, in natural colours, and of amusingly exaggerated dimensions, but beautifully examplifying the capacity of the art of reproducing apparently the thing itself instead of merely a monochrome picture in black and white. Some interesting views of Holland House and the Japanese garden there were followed by some of Wisley, where a grand specimen of Spiraea Aruncus in full bloom, Gunnera scabra of gigantic dimensions, and several general views embracing a neat one of the Water Lily pond, . were so well brought out that the onlooker actually seemed to be present in the garden. The views in Switzerland were grand, commencing with winter scenes taken after heavy snowfalls, where snow-laden Conifers, picturesque old chalets, and bold rock-effects amid deep drifts seemed to transport the beholder to the heart of the Alps, some imposing views of glaciers adding to the illusion. Having thus given a general idea of the conditions under which Alpine plants thrive in their native habitats, a series of extremely interesting slides followed, showing a number of the species in their natural habitats, Hpilobium rosmarinifolium, Dryas octopetala, Silene (Gypsophila) repens, the Martagon Lily, Holly Fern, and Green Spleenwort, yellow Aconite, Gentiana lutea, G. acaulis, and G. bavarica, Rosaalpina, Ranunculus aconitifolius, Lychnis flos-Jovis, and yellow Foxglove being exhibited in their true colours amid associated vegetation of many kinds, some singly and others in groups precisely as nature assorts them in the bold, rocky fastnesses they adorn. Then suddenly the beholders were transported back to home again by a view of a woodland clearing carpeted with golden Primroses, but the next slide afforded a moonlight view of the Lake of Geneva; the lecturer frankly explaining that photographic moonlight views were really "moonshine" in
GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION.
[The result of the election was published in our last issue.]
January 23.—The sixty-eighth annual general meeting was held at Simpson's, Strand, on theabove date, Mr. Harry J. Veitch, treasurer and chairman of committee, presiding.
Following the reading of the minutes of th? last meeting, 4c, the secretary, Mr. G. J. Ingram, read the Annual Report Of The ExecuTive Committee as follows: —
The committee in submitting their annual report, together with a statement of receipts and expenditure (as certified by the auditors) for the year 1907, again have the pleasure of congratulating the subscribers and donors to the institution on its continued success.
At no former period in the sixty-eight years of its existence has so much been done in the way of affording permanent and temporary assistance to the unfortunate members of the horticultural community— gardeners, market growers, nurserymen, ike., and the widows of such—as during the past year. Over .£4,000 has been disbursed in permanent aid alone. That this happy condition has obtained is a matter for thankfulness, and the committee feel it is also an encouragement to the subscribers and others whose generous liberality has enabled thein to carry on the work with so much benefit to those who, through illness and misfortune, have been obliged to seek assistance from the charity, and have not sought in vain.
At the beginning of 1007 there were 337 pensioners on the funds—133 men and 104 widows—receiving annuities of £20 and j£t6 per annum respectively for life. During the year twenty have died, one man has been removed to an infirmary under medical orders; another, a widow, to an asylum owing to her mental condition, and another has left England for America to reside with her son. Of the men who died, three left widows, whose circumstances being such as to render them eligible, have been placed on the funds without election to receive the widows' allowance of A'lfl a year each for life, under Rule iii. 13. The committee now recommend an election this day from an approved list of fifty-two candidates, to fill the vacancies created. Fully sensible of the urgent needs of many of those who arc appealing for aid, the committee sincerely wish they were in a position to assist a larger number, but this they feel cannot safely be done without the assurance of an additional income to meet the extra liability which would necessarily be incurred.
The " Victorian Era Fund " and the "Good Samaritan Fund" still prove a source of much benefit and comfort. From the former fund nearly ^joo has been distributed amongst the unsuccessful candidates at the last election who had formerly been subscribers, in terms proportionate to the length of time they had subscribed; and from the latter fund Jck.o has been given in small amounts as temporary relief to numerous applicants—whether subscribers or not—whose cases were of a most distressing and pathetic nature. The committee again beg to draw attention to the value and utility of these two funds; the one helps the candidate awaiting election, whilst the other bestows temporary help in cases of emergency. As the income only from these funds is available, special contributions car-marked for either of them will be warmly welcomed.
The annual festival dinner which took place at the Whitehall Rooms of the Hotel Mctropole on June 36th last, under the presidency of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, M.P. (trustee), was most successful, and resulted in a substantial sum being raised towards carrying on the work. The committee desire to place on record their gratitude and indebtedness to the chairman for his earnest advocacy of the claims of the charity, and fcr his generous contribution to the funds. They also take this opportunity to express their sincere thanks to those gentlemen who acted as stewards or collectors; to the contributors of flowers; to the horticultural Press for their gratuitous and invaluable help; to Mr. James Hudson, V.M.H., for superintending the decorations; and to other friends throughout the country who in any way, directly or indirectly, contributed to the gratifying result attained. Grateful thanks arc likewise tendered to the Right Hon. Mary Countess of Ilchcster, for again allowing her beautiful gardens at Holland House to be opened to the public on the occasion of the great summer flower show of the Royal Horticultural Society, part of the proceeds obtained therefrom being handed to the institution; also to the Right. Hon. Ear! Beauchamp (Madresficld Court), and Sir Frank Crisp (Friar Park) for similar kindnesses for the same object.
To the "Geo. Monro" concert committee they offer their acknowledgment for again contributing to the funds. Sincere thanks arc likewise accorded to N. N. Sherwood, Esq. (trustee;, for his gift of &10 to the unsuccessful candidates at the last election; and to Arthur W. Sutton, Esq. (member of committee), for kindly supplying a similar amount for a year's allowance in support of an incurably paralysed candidate. Very gratefully do the committee also acknowledge the services rendered by the hon. treasurers and hon. secretaries of the several auxiliaries which continue to be a source of strength and support, not only in obtaining additional financial aid, but in maintaining, as well as creating interest in, the operations of the charity.
It is wi»h great pleasure the committee have to announce that the Right Hon. Lord Aldenham will preside at the sixty-ninth anniversary festival dinner in aid of the funds on Wednesday, June 34th next, at the Whitehall Rooms, Hotel Metropole. They hope his lordship will be warmly supported by every lover o'f gardening and flowers, and that the festival will prove as successful in furtherance of the cause of benevolence ;ts those in previous years. The names of gentlemen willing to act as stewards will be much appreciated.
The committee, unfortunately, have again with sorrow ful and melancholy regret to refer to the large number of losses by death amongst the friends and supporters of the institution they have sustained during the past year. They would especially mention the Marquis ot Biistol and Maxwell T. Masters, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., both of whom were vice-presidents for over forty years, and took a keen and lively interest in the institution. Dr. Masters being always ready to help forward the work. Among others who have passed away are Sir Alex. J. Arbuthnot, chairman of committee for a short time some years ago, Mr. James II. Veitch, also formerly a member of committee, and Lord Battersea; the Hon. Mark Rolle, Sir Michael Foster, Baroness Burden Coutts, Mr. J. Hill While, one of the founders and lion, treasurer of the Worcester Auxiliary, and Mr. R. B. Cater, of the Bristol and Bath Auxiliary.
The loss of these long tried and generous-hearted friends will be severely felt, and their vacant places most difficult lo fill. Still, the committee feel confident
that those who remain in their midst will not relax their efforts, but will do all they possibly can to obtain fresh supporters to take the places of those who have been removed.
With much gratitude the committee acknowledge the practical aid and sympathetic help afforded them in their work, and they now very earnestly appeal to every well-wisher of this National (unsectarianj Horticultural Charity for further exertions and interest on its behalf, so that the beneficial work which has been carried on with such signal success for the poor and needy for so many years may continue to be maintained.—Harky J. Veitch, Treasurer and Chairman of Committee; George J. Ingram, Secretary.
Mr. Harry J. Veitch, in moving the adoption of the report and balance-sheet, referred to the work the institution had done during the past year. The number of pensioners on the books was larger than at any previous time, and a sum of £4,334 was disbuised. Reference was also made to the losses sustained by the institution during the past year in the death of some of its principal supporters, mention being made of the late Dr. Masters, Mr. J. Hill White, and others. The report was adopted.
Following the adoption of the report, Mr.
Harry J. Veitch was re-elected treasurer, Mr. G. J. Ingram, secretary, and the retiring members of the committee, auditors, and arbitrators were also re-elected.
The meeting afterwards proceeded to the election of pensioners, and the result was briefly recorded in our last issue.
There were no fewer than 48 voting papers returned unsigned, and were, consequently, forfeited. These papers represented 355 votes.
The Friendly Supper.
In the evening a company of about 60 persons assembled at the ''Friendly Supper," the chairman for the evening being Mr. Martin H. F. Sutton. After the loyal toasts had been received with enthusiasm, the chairman proposed that of "Our Institution—its continued prosperity."
Mr. Sutton said that "the Gardeners' Koyal Benevolent Institution is a national institution, and is worthy of the deepest affection on the part of all those who know anything of its objects and its methods. On the front page of ot'.r toast list we are reminded that it has now reached the sixty-ninth year of its existence, or, to put it in another way, that it is within two years of attaining to the age of "three score years and ten," which has been stated to be man's allotted span of life. True though that undoubtedly was in days gone by, that limit is constantly exceeded now, though whether greater intellectual powers are concomitant with greater longevity is probably an open question. However that may be, there is one great difference between the individual and the subject of this toast, in that, while the individual in his 69th year has usually seen his best days, this institution was never more vigorous and prosperous than at the present day. During those years it has distributed no less than £117,000 in relief, and only those who are in close touch with the work or are privileged to see some of the letters of gratitude received can form any true idea of how deeply that relief has been appreciated. Its work has brought comfort and happiness into the lives of hundreds who would otherwise in many cases have been entirely destitute, and I feel sure I am within the truth when I say that all those relieved have proved worthy of the assistance the institution was able to give them. In reviewing the past then, we should be deeply thankful for all that has been accomplished through the kind help of many friends, but we cannot on that account be content to rest on our oars. Comparatively large though the income of the institution is, it is by no means commensurate with the needs of the deserving cases that are constantly brought before the committee, and a far larger list of donors and subscribers is needed than at present exists. I honestly believe that no class of the community is more worthy of help in time of trouble than the gardener: I would go further, and venture to say that no skilled labour obtains a smaller wage than does that of the gardener. Many years of patient plodding work are necessary before a man is competent to take charge of a garden of any size, and even when such a position is secured it is difficult for the holder to save a sum that will in any way meet the needs of his declining years. The Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution is therefore a very real boon to him; it brings help just where it is required, and it is worthy of the unstinted support of all. In proposing this toast I have the great pleasure of coupling with it the name of one who has done as much if not more than any living man for this great work. I give you the toast of the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution coupled with the name of Mr. Harry Veitch."
Mr. Harry J. Veitch, in responding, stated the amount of money that had been distributed during the year, and testified to the progress the institution was making. At the same time, the needs of the case were progressive also, and the committee were certainly anxious as to the future. Many liberal supporters of the institution had been removed by death during the year, and it was therefore essential that new subscribers should be obtained and the income of the institution increased. It was gratifying that even so many as 21 fresh pensioners had been elected that day, and they were very grateful to Mr. Arthur W. Sutton and Mr. George Munro for making that number up to 23. He (Mr. « Veitchl was also pleased to announce that Mr. Sherwood had signified his intention to give a sum of £25 for distribution amongst the most necessitous cases. Other toasts included "The Committee, Honorary Officers, and Country Friends," proposed by Mr. George Paul and responded to by Mr. W. A. Bilney and Mr. Peter (\ M. Veitch. "Our Chairman," proposed by Mr. Edward Sherwood, and "The Secretary, Mr. G. J. Ingram," proposed by the chairman.
MANCHESTER AND NORTH OP
January 9.—Committee present: Messrs. E. Ashworth, R. Ashworth, Ward, Warburton, Shill, Sander sen., Cypher, H. Smith, P. Smith, Ball, Parker, Cowan, Keeling, and P. Weathers (hon. sec).
There was a capital display of plants, Cypripediums being prominent in consequence of tne competition for Messrs. Sander and Sons' Challenge Cup.
G. Shorland Ball, Esq., Burton, Westmoreland (gr. Air. Herd), staged a good group of Cypripediums, to which a Silver Medal was awarded. Cypripedium x Earl of Tankerville was the most notable of the plants in this group, and was awarded a First-Class Certificate, a similar award being made to C. insigne var. Berryanum. C. x Hitchensiae var. vivicans, C. insigne var. Thomas Mills, C. X nitens var. "Queen of Yellows," C. X Grovesianum, C. x aureum var. Eric, and C. x Francis received Awards of Merit.
H. J. Bromilow, Esq., Rainhill (gr. Mr. Morgan), had a magnificent collection of Cypripediums, which was well worthy of the Silver-Gilt Medal awarded to it. A large number of the plants contained in this group have previously been certificated by the Society, and it is, therefore, unnecessary to enumerate them here. Cypripedium x Venus, Kann Lea var., was awarded a First-Class Certificate, while C. insigne var. Monarch, and C. X Archimedes var. Excelsior received Awards of Merit.
S. Gratrix, F!sq., Whalley Range (gr. Mr. Shill), gained a First-Class Certificate for Cypripedium insigne var. A. J. Balfour, a fine form produced by hybridisation of two varieties of C. insigne. C. X Prince of Wales, from the same collection, received an Award of Merit.
A. Warburton, Esq., llaslingden (gr. Mr. Dalgleishl, competing for Messrs. Sanders' Cup, gained a Silver Medal, and in the competition fur Thompson's Cup was awarded a Silver-Gilt Medal. Cypripedium X Mrs. Moseley, likewise C x Leeanum var. Avalanche, and C. x Buchanianum, Warburton's variety, received Awards of Merit.
Messrs. Charlesworth & Co., Bradford, exhibited a new hybrid, viz., Odontioda x Craveniana, a choice plant produced by Cochlioda Noetzliana X Odontoglossum maculatum. (Award of Merit.)
J. Macartney, Esq., Bolton, gained a Bronze Medal for Cypripediums, and a Silver Medal for a miscellaneous collection of plants. Cypripedium x St. Vincent and C. insigne var. J. Macartney received Awards of Merit.
J. H. Craven, Esq., Keighley (gr. Mr. Corney), was awarded a Silver Medal for Cypripediums; C. X Juno, Craven's var., and C- villosum var. Mrs. Cary Batten received FirstClass Certificates.
Z. A. Warp, Esq., Northenden (gr. Mr. Weatherby), sent an interesting group of plants, which was awarded a Silver-Gilt Medal. The group consisted principally of well-grown Odontoglossums, species and hybrids, and made a cheerful change from the large display of Cypripediums. Odontoglossum X Lambeauianum var. Jasper received an Award of Merit.
K. Kogerson, Esq., Didsbury (gr. Mr. Price), gained an Award of Merit for Cypripedium Godefroya?, Oakdene variety, which was shown with a few other good plants.
Mr. J. Robson, Altrincham, exhibited Cypripedium x Hera var. Madeline. R. Farrf.k, Esq., Carnforth (gr. Mr. Proudlock), staged a few good Cypripediums, the best of which was a fine specimen of C. x Leeanum var. Clinkaberryarjum. J. Cypher He Sons, Cheltenham, had * nice display of miscellaneous Orchids: some choice forms of Laelia anceps were noticeable in
addition to a number of well-grown Cypripediums. (Silver Medal.) Messrs. Keeling & Sons, Westgate Hill, Yorks., were awarded a Bronze Medal for a miscellaneous group. Messrs. Heath & Sons, Cheltenham, were awarded a Silver Medal for a group of Cypripediums. Mr. W. Shackleton, Biadford, received a Bronze Medal for a group, in which were a few plants of botanical interest. R. Ashworth, Esq., Newchurch, was awarded a Silver Medal for a nice group of Odontoglossums, with a few other plants added. Messrs. H. Lowe & Co. staged a small collection of Cypripediums. (Vote of Thanks.) Messrs. Moore & Co., Rawdon, Leeds, were awarded a Bronze Medal for a group of miscellaneous Orchids.
January 15.—The annual meeting was held on the above date at the Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street, Westminster, Dr. H. R. Mill, president, in the chair.
After the report had been adopted, the president presented the Symons Memorial Gold Medal to Monsieur Leon Teisserence de Bort, of Paris, which had been awarded to him by the council "in consideration of the distinguished work which he has done in connection with meteorological science, especially the study of the upper air."
The president then delivered an address. Dr. Mill is the Director of the British Rainfall Organisation, and he spoke of his own work, and dealt with the subject of " Map Studies of Rainfall." He said that the special problem which he had before him was to determine the normal annual rainfall of the British Isles in relation to the general configuration of the land, and to ascertain how the rainfall of individual years and months, and even of the constituent showers was related to the normal. The most useful method of working towards this end is by the preparation and study of maps of rainfall. He then described the methods which he adopted in preparing annual, monthly, and daily maps of the distribution of rainfall, and also referred to cyclonic and thunderstorm rains. The rainfall showed an unmistakable relation to configuration.
Dr. Mill, in conclusion, said: It happens that rainfall is not only the most difficult of all the meteorological distributions to map accurately, it is also the one which is of the greatest importance, for by rain the rivers are led, and the rivers both water and drain the land. Every year makes clearer the vast national importance of accurate knowledge of the rainfall of a county, for the problem of the rivers is becoming acute. The growing populations of the great towns are tapping the upper waters and diverting the water from its natural channels, and at the same time they are polluting the lower courses with the waste of the factories and the streets. Toll is taken all along the banks of industrial streams for raising steam and carrying on the multitudinous processes of manufacture. There is sometimes anxiety as to whether the waterways can be kept sufficiently supplied to float the water-borne traffic or to fight the silting action of the tides, and there is growing alarm as to the possibility of fish traversing the depleted and polluted streams to reach their spawning beds. Of recent years the value of the water power which may be generated in the lonely and lofty places amongst the western heights of Great Britain, where the rainfall is large and unfailing, has been recognised, and chemical works for the production in electric furnaces of what a few years ago were rare substances are becoming familiar features in Wales and the Highlands. In Ireland, too, the rainfall is an unrecognised source of wealth which as yet has not been drawn upon to any appreciable extent. The increasing strenuousness of the struggle for the possession of large water supplies is producing in England, and especially in Wales, a great amount of local jealousy and strife, for the boundaries of parishes and counties coincide but rarely with water-partings, and the argument has been brought forward again and again that the rainfall of one county should not be diverted for the use of the inhabitants of another. The feeling is intensified when the boundary to be crossed is that of a historical division of
national importance like the boundary between England and Wales; but I think that the mapstudy of rainfall can do something to suggest the lines on which such disputes should be settledi Although the exceptional deluges of a thunderstorm or a great depression fall with equal and impartial heaviness on the hills of the west or the flat plains of the east, the common everyday rains are precipitated on the high lands and in the mountain valleys which cross the track of the prevailing wind in much greater abundance than on level and low stretches of country. Most of the rain is borne to our islands from the Atlantic, and when it comes torrentially, it is of the air, and no boundary checks it; the largest annual falls come down on and near the watersheds, because there the land produces its maximum influence as a rain compeller.
From the high ground the rivers seek the plains, carrying off the excess of rainfall into the less liberally-watered districts. The Dee, the Severn, the Wye, and the Usk restore to England part of the rains which the Welsh mountains have abstracted as the air passed over them. The high rainfall of the whole Pennine districts sometimes, by circuitous routes across the comparatively dry plains of the east, swells the volume of fresh water that pours into the Humber. The Thames itself receives the comparatively high rains of the Cotswolds, the Chilterns, and the Downs, and forwards the water slowly through less and less rainy districts, until it reaches the sea in the driest part of England. Thus, I think, at least as good an argument can be drawn from this consideration of physical geography in favour of supplying the great towns of the east from the large precipitation of the west, as can be drawn in the opposite sense from the artificial divisions of political geography. It seems to me that care for the water supply of the country, coming as it does from the air that knows no bounds across the land, is by no means a parochial but, in the fullest sense, a national matter, and should be dealt with in the interests of the nation as a whole; the units of sub-division when such are required being the natural units of river basins.
BRITISH GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION.
At the last meeting of the Executive Council, Mr. C. Foster in the chair, ten new members were elected, bringing the total up to 1,138. A discussion took place as to converting the quarterly Journal of the Association into a monthly publication. It was eventually decided in favour of a "monthly" after the next quarterly issue, which would complete the year, and subject to full details as to cost to be submitted at the next meeting. A resolution in favour of legislation in Parliament for the establishment of old age pensions was carried, and Messrs. Lewis and Little were appointed a sub-committee to watch the procedure and report any progress made. A subcommittee was also appointed to prepare a practicable scheme for the examination of gardeners, the details to be ready by the annual meeting.
ENQUIRIES AND REPLIES.
Aspidistra With Spotted Leaves.—The Aspidistra T. C. enquired about on p. 64 is an old and fairly well-known kind, its name being Aspidistra lurida punctata. It cannot be regarded as rare, yet at the same time it is uncommon, the reason in all probability being that its style of variegation renders it less effective for decorative purposes than either the ordinary green or variegated-leaved forms. In a catalogue published in 1876 by Messrs. E. G. Henderson & Son, of St. John's Wood, this particular variety is quoted at 3s. 6d. each. W.
MlCROLOMA L1NEARE (CORAL CLIMBER OF
South Africa).—I have just received from a well-known importer of South African plants three good healthy plants of the above-named beautiful and gracefully growing plant received by him from Port Elizabeth, where it is found growing wild at the base of low, scrubby bushes, round the branches of which it twines its slender, wire-like stems, as shown by Harvey on the 92nd plate of the first volume of his Thesaurus Capensis. The flowers are produced in bunches of from five to seven, and are of a tubular form and a bright crimson carmine in colour; hence its native name of Coral Climber. It is also known under the synonym of Ceropegia tenuifolia, as described by Thunberg. A lady correspondent who has seen it growing wild in its native country writes to me about it in the foliowing laudatory terms: "Yes, I known Microloma lineare well, and it is very pretty, with clusters of small crimson-scarlet flowers of a waxy texture which shine like jewels. The seed-pods also are interesting, being full of the silk usual amongst Asclepiads. There is another variety, M. sagittatum, but it is not so ornamental as M. lineare." I shall be glad to hear if this plant has yet blossomed in the United Kingdom, and whether any readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle have seen it in cultivation. It is by no means new, having been introduced about 1823. W. E. Gumblcton.
Bisulphide Of Carbon For Vine Border.— Will any reader who has used bisulphide of carbon fox destroying insects in a vine border kindly state what is a safe quantity to use to the cubic yard, and if this insecticide is noninjurious to the roots of the vine if applied when they are in a dormant condition? W. H. D.
Wanted A Nut-mill.—The Nut-mill enquired about by Mr. Bartholomew on p. 48 of the last issue can be obtained at Mr. T. J Bilson's, dried fruit merchant, 88, Gray's Inn Road, near the Holborn Town Hall, and the price is, I think, 2s. 6d each. Correspondent.
The Nut-mills can be obtained from
the Eustace Miles Restaurant Co., Ltd., Chandos Street, Charing Cross, W.C. Prices Is. 6d. and 3s. 6d , postage extra. A small book of recipes for the making of dishes of Nuts, &c, will be supplied gratis, if a stamped addressed envelope is sent. 1 strongly recommend Mr. A. C. Bartholomew to procure both. 7". \V. Cook, Talacre Gardens, Piestatyn.
An Asparagus Plumosus Plant In Bad ConDition: //. Churchman. The plant is literally starved. You should shake it out of the tub or pot, cut away all dead and dying roots and top growths, dividing the mass into three or four portions and potting each separately, letting the new soil—chiefly good loam—trickle down among the roots, making it firm as you fill up. Give a good application of water and place the plant in a moderately warm house for three months.
Bacteria: Curious and R. B., Malvern. The benefit to be expected from applying the bacteria for leguminous crops depends on the condition of the soil. It is throwing money away to use it on soils that are already rich. These already are fully inoculated. The poorer the soil the more likely is benefit to accrue. But the matter is still in the experimental stage. Why not try a small plot, and compare it with the produce in untreated parts of your garden?
Bleeding Of Muscat Vine: A. R. You cannot stop the flow of sap by any artificial means, but it will cease of itself some time after leafgrowth begins. If very excessive, it may cause a weakening of the vine, but nothing serious is likely to occur.
Chrysanthemums: ]no T. You have certainly given the plants plenty of manure. Your trouble probably arises from the fact that the plants yet to bloom have had to complete their growth late in autumn, and the shoots are insufficiently matured to produce good flowers. If this is the case all the manure in the world will not put matters right, but an excessive use of them would have an effect contrary to that which you wish. It is not uncommon for Chrysanthemums which flower at the end of January or later to yield very small blooms such as you have sent us.
Forced Roman Hyacinths: //. Churchman. Apply water till the yellowing of the leaves
shows that the year's work of the bulb is done, then afford less and less by degrees, and afterwards dry the bulbs off. Another way is to plant the potfuls of bulbs in the shrubbery border or in the turf of the lawn and let them die off naturally, marking the spot with a stout peg. They will afford a few flowers in the spring each year, but Roman Hyacinths are only successful in favoured districts.
Fronds: Asplenium. The specimen is infested with common "Scale" insects. Cut off the fronds and thus cause the plants to make a fresh start.
Gardener's Notice: Devonshire, Interested. It is customary for head gardeners living on the premises to receive one month's notice terminating the engagement.—L. B. W. The matter would depend upon the construction to be placed on the first intimation that was given you, whether it was a notice or not.— F. J. M. We do not know that either of you could successfully claim more than one week's notice. If the cases were taken to the courts they would probably be decided in accordance with what could be proved to be the custom.
Gloriosa Superba: E. II., Liverpool. The tubers that are softening do not appear to be attacked by bacteria, and we fail to detect the cause of the failure. These soft parts are soon covered with the common blue mould, which has always been regarded as a saprophyte. It is possible that sometimes it may become parasitic. We have inoculated sound portions of the tubers with the material of the soft parts, but only the common blue mould has resulted. Destroy all the diseased tubers to prevent its spreading to healthy plants.
Late Chrysanthemums: /. E. R. N. If you read the remarks published in the " Market" columns of this journal during the past two months, you will see the names of the best late-flowering Chrysanthemums that have been sent to Covent Garden Market. See also reply in "Answers to Correspondents" in the issue for December 14, p. 424.
Names Of Flowers, Fruits And Plants.—We are anxious to oblige correspondents as far as we consistently can, but they must bear in mind that it is no part of our duty to our subscribers to name either flowers or fruits. Such work entails considerable outlay, both of time and money, and cannot be allowed to disorganise the preparations for the weekly issue, or to encroach upon time required for the conduct of the paper. Correspondents should never send more than six plants or fruits at one time: they should be very careful to pack and label them properly, to give every information as to the county the fruits are grown in, and to send ripe, or nearly ripe, specimens which show the character of the variety. By aeglecting these precautions correspondents add greatly to our labour, and run the risk of delay and incorrect determinations. Correspondents not answered in one issue are requested to be so good as to consult the following numbers.
Fruits: /. Coombs. The specimens are insufficiently good for determination.—Salopia. The specimen is insufficient; probably a Juniper.
Plants: Ichabod. Epidendrum ciliare.— Veritas. 1, Pleurothallis obovata; 2, Oncidium sphacelatum; 3, Oncidium altissimum; 4, Pteris umbrosa — 0. H. Reineckia carnea.— W.H.C. 1, Begonia nitida alba; 2, Begonia subpeltata variety; 1, Codiaeum (Croton) Johannis; 2, Codiaeum variegatum.—No Name. You have omitted to send name and address, and have addressed the flower to the Publisher when you should have addressed it to the Editor. The flower is Cypripedium Harrisianum, the light form often called C. Dauthieri.—F. A. Angraecum falcatum, a pretty little Japanese Orchid, easily grown in a cool house.
New Zealand Flax Seeds: Anxious. If the seeds have germinative power, they should sprout in a heat of 65°, such as you have afforded. Soaking them in warm water for 24 hours before sowing might be useful, and a bottom heat of 75° would likewise hasten their germination. Sow in rich, sandy loam i inch deep.
Palm Leaves Withered: O. H. There is no doubt that the fumes of the gas in the dwell
ing-house causes the damage to the plants. It is possible also that the plants have suffered drought at the roots, and this condition would help to increase the mischief.
Pears For North And East Walls: G. R. In Kent and such favoured counties, the great majority of both early and late varieties of Pears succeed either against north or east walls. The fruit is not quite so large in these positions, but the flavour is equal to those grown on west or south walls, especially if left to hang till very late in the autumn. The following varieties are amongst the best for your purpose:—Pitmaston Duchess, Doyenne du Cornice, Marie Louise, Beurre d'Amanlis, Beurre Dubuisson, Beurre Hardy, Clapp's Favourite, Conference, Marguerite Marillat, Triomphe de Vienne, Winter Nelis, and Josephine de Malines. Situated as you are in South Devon, you ought to have no difficulty in growing these varieties well, unless the position is one greatly exposed to violent winds. We have found from long experience that fruits upon north and east walls require frequent waterings, owing to the fact that most of the rainfall comes from the south or west during the summer months. This .natter is of very great importance.
Pelargonium Leaves: .4. A. Puncture by aphis in the young stage of the leaf often develops in the manner shown on the specimens received. Remove all the damaged leaves and the plants will probably grow perfectly natural when there is more sunlight.
Situation In An Erfurt Nursery: C. II. H. Living is not so cheap in Germany as was formerly the case, and we should doubt the statement that board and lodging can be obtained for 7s. per week, except in very low quarters; 10s. is nearer the mark, and you must be content to live like the native. Tea is almost unknown and very dear ; pure coffee is dear. The beefsteak or chop of Old England are rarities, but there are compensations. Where other young persons exist you can also live: it is merely a question of getting used to the conditions. A wage of 14 mk. per week will keep you, provided you have no expensive tastes. You should find a residence of a few years in the centre of the seed raising and plant trade of Germany of great use to you as a gardener.
Snowdrops: H. W. Your bulbs are attacked by the Snowdrop white mould (Botrytis galanthina), see Gardeners' Chronicle, May 2, 1889, p. 275, which mould is the prelude and conidia of Sclerotinia Fuckeliana—at least such is supposed to be the case. There is no remedy but to destroy the diseased bulbs so as to prevent the disease from spreading.
Spir.ea Plants: A. H. We think the inflorescences have suffered from strong manure water having been spilled over them. You do not state for what purpose the stamps were enclosed.
Transplanting A Rose From One House To Another: H. Churchman. Carry out the operation at any time onwards till the beginning of the month of March—not later, or the iplant will have begun to grow at the top. Prepare a large hole, and fill this with fresh rich soil, but do not bring the manure into direct touch with the roots. Make the soil firm below and above the roots.
Weymouth Pine "Coccus" And Insect On Beech: Subscriber. Can you send specimens of each pest? There are several distinct species of insects which attack Beech trees and Conifers.
Yew Twig : A. S.S. The swollen buds on your Yew trees are due to the attack of a gall-gnat, Cecedomyia Taxi. If you pick off the leaves you will find a \ery small orange-coloured grub in the centre. This is responsible for t>e malformation, which is very common in Yew trees.
Communications Revived.—S. E. N.—J. B. S. -H. H. Negley, Pittsburg. U.S.A.— Prof. S., Arnold Arboretum, Mass.-T. S.—A. H. A.—R. K.-J. C. T.-J. Pouelas— W. Watson—Chas. Pynaert-A. B.—F. B.—t.ily FailureReading Gardeners' Association—A. H.—F. G. B. E. M. —A. G. S.—Rev. D. R. W.—A. Berger, Italy—A. W. W.— W. I'. R.—Nurseryman-I. Jordy-C. K.-F. I.—W. B. L. —C. H. P. -Chloris-C. H. M.—J. C—H. S.-Hnn. Frances Wolseley (we shall he pleased to receive the bookl— H. E. S., New Zealand-]. M.—P. A.-^C. P. R — W. W.
Aerial roots on vines ... 96
American Notes - 90
Be^unu Gloire de Lorraine atHramham Park 82
Benevolent Institution, Gardeners' Royal ... 89
Bisulphide of Carbon
B«-»ks Notices of—
The Sweet Pea Annual 83
ttra<stca crosses ... 9*2
Calceolaria, the 88
Chrysanthemum Journal, a cew 89
i'n«t, protecting crops from 89
Geo. Monro, Ltd., concert committee, ihe ... 89
H-inbury, the late Sir Thomas 89
Herbaceous plant ?what is an 90
Mora*a iridtoides from the Natal Botanical Garden ... ... 89
Motor in horticulture, uses of the 84
Nursery Employes Union, a 99
Pansy '* Rev. D. R. Williamson •• 89
Peas of recent introduction 85
Plants, new or note-
Plum, the Formosa ... 90
Pomological Institute at Proskuroff 90
Potato Sir John Llewelyn 96
Rose garden at Berlin ... 89
Roses and their culture 83, 89
Royal Horticultural ..89,93
Sports, the nature of ...
Sussex waste, a
Trees and shrubs—
Vegetables, pointing of
Week's work, the —
Flower garden, the ...
British Gardeners* Association Certificate 91
Cross between a Brussels Sprout and Savoy ... ... 92
"Ivel" motors at work in a harvest field 85
Morasa iridioides, from a sketch by Mr. G. Medley
Pbiladelphus grandiflorus laxus 82
Spiraa canescens ... 90
"Tboruycroft " lorry capable of carrying.two tons... 84
A SUSSEX WASTE.
WHEN Scotch planters speak of " waste lands," such as it has been often proposed to plant, they commonly have in mind bleak mountain slopes or poor land worth a merely nominal rent, or morasses of still less value, and when they first see the Sussex and Surrey wastes they pet a surprise. In the first case, the land is poor, and has ;ilways been poor or " waste "; in the second, it is Rood land that has been allowed to become waste.
An old writer has declared that, when it was desired to reduce pood land to the lowest value, the best plan was to make " common" land of it, and if ever there was a striking '\ample it is to be seen in the twenty thousand acres, more or less, now constituting Ashdown Forest in Sussex, and belonging to anybody. According to local tradition, this common was granted or created in the time of one of the Charles's, but under what conditions I have not learned. Some of the natives are rather
proud of their derelict forest, and a ride over the ground in a motorcar is now considered quite a treat for a stranger. Anyone longing for the "simple life" might have all his wishes gratified in some of the desolate spots among the whins. I once, walked for miles to get a newspaper and failed. In one village of considerable size there was no newsvendor of any sort. The little post office had none to lend or sell, and the ramshackle little publichouse of bricks and timber had none either, and the landlord said he did not think one could be got. St. Kilda is better off.
Sussex, according to agricultural returns, is credited with about 18,000 acres of mountain and heath lands, but Ashdown waste appears to be left out, for, although it is neither mountain nor heath, it is certainly " waste" in the sense in which foresters understand the term. Nevertheless, it is mostly first-class agricultural land, or land of fair quality, in a sunny climate, that under cultivation produces the finest crops of nearly all kinds. During the past and other years, we have seen, on cultivated patches of the forest soil, Wheat and Oats over 6 feet in height with wellfilled ears.
Sussex is also credited with over 124,000 acres of woods, by far the greater portion of which is, however, coppice worth nothing or next to nothing, and in consequence it is perhaps one of the poorest timber counties in England. I make this estimate from the large proportion of coppice 1 have scon in many parts of Sussex, and not from the Ordnance map records, which are almost useless for such purposes.
I have often traversed tracts of the " forest " and been struck with the fact that here, within an hour from Victoria Station, or an hour and a half by motorcar", you are plunged into one of the wildest and most barren natural tracts in Britain, much of which is likely to be converted into a suburb of London before long. Crowborough is at present one of the chief building centres there, and already roads, streets, and sewers on an extensive scale are being laid out as fast as contractors can work, and villadom has already begun. Every day, but more especially at week-ends, the express trains from Victoria are crowded with passengers from London to Crowborough.
What strikes one most is the utter waste and neglect of what is called the " forest " or "common land." Nothing is done to improve it, and local proprietors dare not encroach to mend it. There are local laws, I have been told, which confer ownership on any lord of the manor who will plant the land with timber trees and keep the timber crop up for a certain number of years, but attempts to do this have been frustrated, in a dog-in-themanger spirit, by the commoners who, I am assured, destroy the plantations as fast as they are formed. The "forest" is mostly covered with furze, bracken, briars, thistles, and weeds, except here and there where a patch of grass exists and where an odd cottager's cow or goats, or a few sheep, find scanty pasturage.
The soil, as has been stated, is either good or of fair quality and grows excellent crops and still better timber, and as a planting area I should think it could hardly be surpassed. The forest is a great resort of tourists and gipsies. The latter were an abso
lute nuisance not many years ago, and had to be dealt with by the authorities, and there arc numbers in and about the forest yet of the real Romany type. In some instances they own the bit of land where their encampment is in order to escape police interference. From the road over the hill from Crowborough to Uckfield, a distance of 12 miles or thereabouts, one gets extensive views of furze, heather, and bracken, with here and there a tree—nothing more. In these days, when so much is said and written about the land for the people, one cannot help thinking that if the Sussex wastes are a sample, the less the people have to do with the land the bettor, for such a scene of utter neglect it would be difficult to imagine. What the land is like, and what might be accomplished by cultivation or planting, anyone can see by the existing plantations and crops, where there are any. There is one large private estate in the forest, not far from Crowborough, reserved to the owners by some far-back privilege ; extensive tracts of this estate have been planted in more recent times with Larch, Spruce, and Douglas Fir, &c, and now form a fine feature in the landscape and show what the land and climate could do in the production of timber. Indeed, Sussex was once the finest timber county in England, and might be again. For their age, I have never seen finer Larch, Douglas Fir, Scotch Fir, and Oak, than in Sussex, but the Douglas will soon overtop all other species in height. Young trees, planted about 12 or 15 years ago on certain estates, are now beginning to overtop other kinds of trees five or six times their age. The Scotch Fir is another good subject. On the roadside between Crowborough and Uckfield there is a strip of Scotch Fir in which the trees, for height, growth, shape, and number on the ground, excel almost anything I have seen at home or abroad, but the strip is dense, the trees standing only a few feet apart.
Another evidence of the productiveness of the soil all over the forest is the condition of trees and garden crops round dwellings. In parts of the forest villas are being dotted down here and there among the furze like shanties in a backwoods settlement, and in such small clearings all kinds of crops seem to do well. The heavy Sussex clay is known to be a fertile soil, its only fault being that it is difficult to work in all weathers.
Less than a hundred years ago, I believe, some of the fairest and most fertile portions of the Lothians in Scotland were much in the same state as the Sussex commons are now, but there were no restrictions against the land being brought under high cultivation, and that has been done almost wholly bv long-lease tenants, who reclaimed the land and walled the fields—af their own expense —with the stones ploughed up out of the ground.
"Common lands" may serve some purpose, but when they are out of all proportion to the population and its wants, and derelict into the bargain, they are not called for. Perhaps some of the readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle can tell more about Sussex than I can. It is a lovely country to look at from the outside, but primitive and far behind in many ways—far behind in its forestry and not much better in its agriculture. ]. Simpson.