« PreviousContinue »
BABTLUS, an astrologer in Nero's age, ■who told the emperour to avert the darker which seemed to hang upon his head, from the appearance of a hairy comet, by putting all the leading men of Home to death. His advice mis faithfully followed. Suelan.
BAB'YLON, a son of Belus, who, as acme suppose, founded a city which heirs his name.—A celebrated cit?, thr capital of the Assyrian empire, on the banks of the Euphrates. It had 100 brazen gates; and its walls, which were ee men led with bitumen, measured 480 stadia in circumference, 50 cubits in thickness, and 200 in height It was taken by Cyrus, B. C. 538, after he had drained the waters of the Euphrates into a new channel, and marched his troops by night into the town, through the dried bed. Babylon became t»lnous for the death of Alexander, and tor the new empire which was afterwards established there under the Seleucidx. [Vid. Stria.] The place where it stood is now unknown to traveller*. The inhabitants were early acquainted with astrology.—There is also a town of the same name near the Bubastickbranch of the Nile, inEgypt. Ptin.
BABYLONIA, a large province of Assyria, of which Babylon was the capital.—Here Peter wrote one if not both of bis epistles to the Jews. 1 Peter. —Here also since the destruction of Jerusalem, the Jews have had synagogues, by a Babbi of one of which their Urge Talmud was framed. Psalms.— Borne is sometimes called Babylon on account of its idolatry, lewdness, and persecution of Christians. Rev.
BABYLOTfll, the inhabitants of Babylon, famous for their knowledge in astrology, first divided the year into 12 months, and the zodiack into 12 signs.
BA'CA, a place near Jerusalem so called from containing many mulberry trees. 'Pial.
BAC'CH^!, the priestess of Bacchus.
BACCHANAUA, festivals in honour of Bacchus at Home, the same as the Dionysia of the Greeks. Vid. Diont
BACCHANTES, priestesses of Bacchus who arc represented at the celebration of the Orgies almost naked, with garlands of ivy, with a thyrsus and dishevelled hair. Their looks are wild, and they utter dreadful sounds, and clash different musical instruments together. They are also called Thyades and Me-; ■ades. Ovid, be.
BACCHI'AHiE or BACCHIttJE, a Corinthian family, descended from Bacchia, daughter of Dionysius, or more probably from Bacchis, son of Prumnis. In their nocturnal Orgies, th*v, as some report, tore to pieces AcUcon, son of Melissus; which so enraged th« futher, that before the altar he entreated the Corinthians to revenge the death of Ilia son, and immediately threw himself into the sea. Upon this the Bacehidie were banished, and went to settle in Sicily, where some suppose that they buik fevracuse. Ovid, Strab. etc.
BAC'CHIS or BAI.'US, king of Corinth, succeeded his father Prumnides. His succcssours were always called ftticctutLe, in remembrance of the equity and moderation of his reign. The Bacehids: increased so much, that they chose one of their number to preside among them with regal authority. Cypselus overturned this institution by making himself absolute. Strub.
BAC'CHIUS and BI'THCS, two celebrated gladiators, of equal age and strength; whence the proverb to elpress equality, Bithui contra BaccHum. mrat.
BACCHUS, was ton of Jupiter and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. After she had enjoyed the company of Jupiter, Semele was deceived, aud perished by the artifice of Juno, who assumed the shape of Brroc, Semele's nurse, and persuaded Semele that the lover whom she entertained was not Jupiter, but a false lover; and that, to prove his divinity, she ought to beg of him, if he really were Jupiter, to come to her bed with the same majesty as he courted the embraces of Juno. The artifice succeeded; and when Jupiter promised his mistress whatever she asked, Semele required him to visit her with all the divinity of a god. Jupiter was unable to violate his oath; and Semele, unwilling to retract it, therefore, as she was a mortal, and unable to bear the majesty of Jupiter, she w as consumed, and reduced toashes. The child, of which she had been pregnant for seven months, was with difficulty saved from the flames, and put in his father's thigh, where he remained the full time he naturally was to have been in his mother's womb. From this circumstance Bacchus has been called Bimater. There are different traditions of the manner of his education, which show that there have been many of the same name. Diodorus speaks of three of this name, and Cicero of a greater number, but among them all, the son of Jupiter and Senjele seems to have obtained the merit of all thr rest. Haccbus is the 0«yris of the Egyptiaus, and his history is draw n from the Egyptian traditions concerning lh»! ancient king. His expedition into the East is celebrated, lie nui-ched, at tin head of an army composed of men, as well as of women, ail inspired with divine fui*y, and armed with thyrsuses, cymbals, and other musical instruments. The leader was drawn in a chariot by a lion and a tiger, and was accompanied by Pan and Silenus, and all the Satyrs. His conquests were easy, and without bloodshed; the people easily submitted and gratefully elevated to the rank of a god, the hero who taught them the use of the vine, the cultivation of the earth, and the manner of making honey. Amidst his benevolence to mankind, he was relentless in punishing all want of disrespect to his divinity; and the punishment inflicted on Pentheus, Agave, Lycurgus, See. is well known. He has received the name of Liber, Bromius, Lysus, Evan, Thyonseus, Pailas, &c. which are mostly derived from the places where he received adoration, or from the ceremonies observed in his festivals. As he was the god of wine, and of drinkers, he is generally represented crowned with vine and ivy leaves, with a thyrsus in his hand. The panther is sacred to him, because he went in his expedition covered with the skin of that bean. The magpie is also his favourite bii-d, because in triumphs people were permitted to speak with boldness and liberty. The festivals of liaccbus, generally called Orgies, Bacchanalia, or Diotiysia, [Firf. Dionvsia.] were introduced into Greece, from Egypt, by Dauaus and his daughters. Cic. Pans. Jferodot. See. BACCHYL'IDES, a lyrick poet of Cos, nephew to Simonides, who, like Pindar, Wrote the praises of Hiero. Some of his verses have been preserved. Marcel.
BAC'TRA, the capital of Bactriana, on the river Bactros, in Asia. Virg.
BACTRI& BACTRLVNI, theinhabitauts of Bactriana, who live upon plunder, and are always under arms. They give to their dogs those that die through old age or disease, and suffer slaves and strangers to take whatever liberties they please with their wives. They were conquered by Alexander the great. Ciirt.
BACTRIA'NA, a country of Asia, fruitfid as well as extensive. It formed once part of the Persian empire, on the eastern parts of which it is situated. Zoroaster was the most ancient king of this country, who taught hia subjects the art of magick and astrology. JJiod.
BACTROS, a river on the borders of Asiatick Scythia, from which Bactriana receives its name.
B./E'TIS, a river of Spain, from which a part of the country has received the name of Bxtica. It was formerly called Tartessns, and now bears the name of Guadalquiver. The wool produced there was in high estimation for its fineness and superiour quality, so that Basticus became an epithet of merit, when applied to garments. Paua. Piin. fccc.
BAGO'ASfc BAGO'SAS, a name common to many eunuchs of the monarchs of Persia, the most remarkable of whom was an Egyptian eunuch, in the court of Artaxerxes Ochus, so powerful that nothing could be done without his consent. He led some troops against the Jews, and profaned their temple. He poisoned Ochus, gave his fltsli to cats, and made knife-handles with his bones, because he had killed the god Apis. He placed on the throne A rses, the youngest of the slaughtered prince's children, and afterwards put him to death. He was at last killed, B. C. 335, by Darius, whom, after raising t*> the crown, he had attempted to poison. /Mod.
BAGTiADA, a river of Africa, near Utica, where Regulus killed a serpent one hundred and twenty feet long. Piin. -I
BAHU'RIM, a eity of the BenjamWes, where Ahimaaz and Jonathan bid themselves as they carried information to David. 2 Sam.
BA'IJE, a city of Campania, near the sea, founded by Bains, one of the companions of Ulysses. It is famous for its delightful situation and baths, where many of the Roman senators had country houses. Martial Horat. &c.
B VJ1TH, a city of Moab. Isa.
BA'LAAM, the son of Beor, a prophet of the city ot Pethor, who was desired by Bnlak the king of Moab to cone the Hebrews. Tempted by the presents of Balak, he wished to go but was w arned by God not to do so. Upon a second solicitation he was permitted to go. On his journey he met the Artgel of the Lord and smote his ass for turning out of the way to avoid the tninisttr ol God. The ass miraculously reproved him, and the Angel made !»imse!f~v»iblcT and rebuked him for his cruelty. At Balaam's request, Balak erected attars to God, and offered sacrifices on them, but being forbidden by God, Balaam refitted to curse the Hebrews: be blessidahcm and predicted thedownfal o^Moab. He was kilted not long after in a war with the Miilianiles. JS'nmb. Dent. Josh. JVeh. Jlftc.—Some false teachers of the Apostolick age arc compared to Balaam. Judef Rev.
BAL'AD.VN, the same with Belesis, Be! • Xabonassar, Kc. He was tlie son of Pol, king of Assyria, and had Babylon for his portion. Jsa. 2 King*.
BALA'N US, a prince of Gaul, who assisted the Romans in their Macedonian war, A. V. C 581.
C. BALBIL'LUS, a learned and benevolent man, governour of Egypt, of which he wrote the history uuder Nero. Tacit. Aim.
B ALB FN US, a Roman, who, after goTeniing provinces with credit and honour, assassinated the Gordians, and seized the purple. He was some time nfter murdered by his soldiers, A. D. 238.
BAL'BL'S, a mountain of Africa, famous for die retreat of Masinissa, after he Lad fought a battle against Svphax.
B ALEA'RES, three islands in die Mediterranean, modemly called Mnjorcu, Minorca, aud Yvica, on the const of Spam. The word is derived from kt-fj<Vfy to throw, because the inhabitants were expert archers pud stingers, besides great pirates. Floras rentes that in these isles mothers never gave children their breakfast befoi-e the) had struck with au arrow a certain mark io a tree.
B VLlUSj a horse of Achilles. Homer.
BAl/NEjE, Cbaths, J were very numerous at Home, private as well as publick. In the ancient times simplicity was observed, but in the age of the ewperours they became expensive; they were used alter walking, exercise, or labour, and were deemed more necessary than luxurious. The Roman cmperoois generally built baths, aud uli endeavoured to celt|we each otlier in the magnificence of the buil'liug. It is said that Diocletian employed 40,0<Ri of his soldiers io building his bathf, ami, «hcn they were finished, he destroyed all the workmen. Alexander Severus first permitted the people to use them in the night. They generally read its bathing, and we fino many compositions written in using the
BALEPA'TRA, a town of India, supposed to be modem Putaxa. BA'MAH, a high place where Jews
worshipped their idols. Jizeh. BA'MOTH, a place in the borders of Moab, where the Hebrews had their 4:2nd encampment. Numb. Josh. BAMBVCE, an ancient name of Hierapolis, in Syria, called Magog by the inhabitants ol the country. Plin. Bantije, a town of Apulia, whence
Buntimis. Harat. L. BAN'TIUS, a gallant youth of No!n, whom Anmbal found, after the battle of Canme, almobtdt ad among the heap of slain. He wiissent bark home with great humanity, upon which he resolved to betray his country to so generous an enemy. Marcellus, the Koman general, beard of it, and rebuked Btmtius, who continued firm and faithful to the interest of Home. IJv. BAFTiE, the priests of Cotvtto, the goddess of laseiviousness and debauchery at Athens. Her festivals were celebrated in the night; and so obscene wasUte behaviour of the priests that they disgusted even Cotvtto hrrsclf. The name is derived from 0ct7mny to tvtishf because the priests bathed themselves in the most effeminate manner. Juv.—A comedy of Eupolis. BARAB'BAS, a notorious robber, who in conformity to a custom, and to the wishes of the Jews, was released by Pontius Pilate, in preference to our Saviour. Matt. John, Mark, BAR£% a people of Colchis and Iberia, who burn the bodies of their friends who die by disease, but give to the fow ls of the air Buch as fall in the w ar. JFJian. BA'HAK, see DEBORAH. BAR'BARI, a name originally applied to those who 8]»oke inelegantly, or with harshness ami difficulty. The Greeks and Romans generally called all nations, except their own, by the despicable name of Jiurbttrians. BARBA'ltlA, a river of Macedonia. Jav.-—^ ntime given to Phr^giaaud Troy. Herat. BAHC/E'I, or BAH'CiTA. a warlike nation of Africa, near Carthage. Virg. BAU'CE, the nurse of Sicbscus. Virg. —A large country of Africa.—Also a city, about nine miles from the sea, founded by the brothers of Arcesilaus, king of Cyrene, 515 years before the Christian aera. Stra6. BAR'CHA, the surname of a noble family at Carthage, of which Amilcar and Annib:d were descended. By means of their bribes and influence
they excited a great • faction, which is | celebrated in the annuls uf Carthage by the name of the Barchinian faction, and at laBt raised themselves to power, and to the independent disposal of all the offices of trust or emolument in the state. JUv. BARU'NO, a maritime town at the cast of Spain, now Barcelona, the capital of Catelonia. BAR'DI, a celebrated sacerdotal order among the ancient Gauls, who praised their heroes, and published their fame in their verses, or on musical instrument*. They were so esteemed and respected by the people, that, at their sight, two armies, who were engaged in battle, laid down their arms, and submitted to their orders. BA'RES, a naval officer of Persia, who wished to destroy Cyrene, hut was opposed by Ainasis. iierodot. BAR-JE'SUS, a Jewish magician in the island of Cyprus, whose name in Arabick was Elymas or the sorcerer, lie was struck with blindness by Paul for endeavouring to prevent the conversion of the Roman deputy. Jlctt. BARJO'N A, a Syriack name of Peter, implying that he was the son of Jona. Matt. John. BA'RIUM, a town of Apulia, on the
Adriatick. Moral. BAR'JiABAS, a native of Cyprus, who introduced Paul to the Christians at Jerusalem: he also preached with him at Antioch, and accompanied him into lesser Asia, to plant churches among the Gentiles. They afterwards separated, and Barnabas went to Cyprus. Jlcts, GaL BAR'ROS, a man ridiculed by llorat.
as proud of his beauty. BAR'SABAS, a candidate with Matthias for the Apostlesltip in the place of Judas, called also Joseph Justus. Jlctt.—A member of the synod at Jerusalem, sent with Paul and Barnabas to preach among the GentUe churches. Jfcfs.
BAHSI'NEandBARSE'NE, a daughter of Darius, who married Alexander, by whom she hat] a son called Hercules, Cassan'ic • ordered her and her son to be put to death. Justin.
BARTHOLOMEW, one of the twelve apostles, supposed to lie the same with Nathaniel, Bartholomew not being a proper nsmc. He was declared by Jesus to be "an Israelite indeed. He was sent with Philip to, preach and work miracles in the land of Israel. John, Mutth. Mark, JLuhe
BARTIME'US, a blind man to whom
Jesus restored sight Matth. Mark.
BASlliE'A, a daughter of Ccelus and
BASUJ'DiE, European Samaritans, de-
BASILI'DES, the father of Herodotus,
BASTLIS.a citv of Arcadia, buih by Cyp-
Apollo has a temple. Pout.
known under the modern nameof Holland. Ltucan.
BATHSHEBA, the wife of Uriah the liittite. David having seen her bathing, became enamoured of her, while her husband was absent at the seige of Rabhah. She having become pregnant by the monarch, he putUriah in u situation to he destroyed in battle, and married his widow. His child died as had been threatened by Nathan, bat Bsthshc-ba bore David four other sons, one of whom was Solomon. 2 Sam. 1 Chron.
BATHYL'US: the most remarkable of this name was the poet who claimed as his own Virgii's distich, jVociepluil tola, ice.
BATIS, a eunuch, governour of Gaza, who, u|K>n being unwilling to yield, was dragged round the city, tied by the heels to Alexander's chariot. Curt. BATRACHOM YOM ACH'IA, a poem, describing the fight between frogs and rotee, written by Homer, which has :n printed sometimes separate from
Iliad or Odyssey. 'TIS, a girl celebrated by Philetus, the eleeiack (met. Ovid. BATTUS, the name of two kings of tt Btrodot.—A shepherd of who promised Mercury that _Btt discover his having stolen the flocks of Admetus, which Apollo tended. He violated his proJMMts was turned into a pumice
stone. Ovid. BATULUM, a town of Campania, whose inhabitants assisted Turous against .Xneas- Virg.
BAITBO, a woman who received Ceres when ihe sought her daughter all over the work], and gave her some water to quench her thirst Ovid. BAU'CIS, an old woman of Phrygia, who, with her husband, Philemon, lived in a small cottage, in a penurious manner, when Jupiter and Mercury travelled in disguise over Asia. The gnds came to the cottage, where they received the best things it affonied; and Jupiter was so pleased with their hospitality, that he metamorphose.il their dwelling into a magnificent temple, of which Baucis and her hu»b*u' were made priests. After they Iil>' fived happy to an extreme old age. they died both at the same hour, ac eording to their request to Jupiter, that one might not have the sorro-\ m following die other to the grave. Their bodies were changed into trees before I of the temple. Ovid.
1US, two stupid
and malevolent poets in the age of Au gustus, who attacked the superiotii' talents of the contemporary writers. Virg.
BE'BIUS, a famous informer in Vespasian's reign. Juv.
J3EBRIA0UM, a village between Cremona and Verona, where Vitcllius overcome Otlio.
BEB'RYCE, a daughter of Danaus, who is said to have spared her husband. Most authors, however, attribute that character to Hypermenestra. VitlT)i XAIDIS.
BF.B'RYCES aud BEBRYCTI, a nation of Asia, near Pontus, of Thracian origin, and, according to Arrian, descended from Bebryce.
BEBItYC'IA.an ancient name of Bithynia, from Bebryce, the daughter of Danaus.
BE'DAN, a judge of the Hebrews. 1 Sam. 1 Chron.
BE'ER, a city in the neighbourhood of Jernsalem. Judg.
BEEK-LAHA'IROI, a well to die south of Canaan, so called hy Hagar, because there God appeared to her. Gen.
BEER'ROTH.a city of the Gibeonites, given to the tribe of Benjamin. 2 iSam. —The 28th encampment of the Hebrews in the Arabian desert. Numb. Ueut.
BEER'SHEBA, the place where dwelt Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Gen. A city was afterwards built here which fell to the Simeonitcs. Josh. It was on the southern border of the Israelites. 2 Sam. 1 Kings, Judg.
BEL, the Chaldean idol Baal. ha. Jer.
BELEPHAN'TES, a Chaldean, who, from his knowledge of astronomy, told Alexander tliat his entering Babylon would he attended with total consequences to him. Diod.
BEL'ESIS, a priest of Babylon, who told Arbaces, govcrnour of Media, that he should reign one day in the place of Sardatiapalus. His prophecy was verified, and he was rewarded by the new king with the government of Babylon, B. 0. 826. Diod.
BEL'G.fl3, a warlike people of ancient Gaul, separated from the Celtte, hy the rivers Matrona and Scquana. Their country extends from the Rhine to the river modcrnly called the Loire. Cxt.
BRL'GIUM, the capital of Gallia Belgica.
The word is often used to express the
whole country. Ctet. BE'LIAL, a name npplied to Satan. 1
k.1 Sam. Deut. 2 Cor. ,'