haved himself was just as good as anybody else. For this reason, they refused to take off their hats in the presence of the magistrates, the nobles, and even the king himself. They thought that nobody ought to go to law, or take an oath in court, and they were sure that all fighting and wars were wrong. They even refused to pay taxes for keeping up armies and building war ships.

They thought it wicked to wear gay clothes. They wore plain, drab coats and trousers and broad-brimmed hats. Their women wore plain dresses of the same color. No Quaker man or woman would wear ribbons, feathers; rings, or jewelry of any sort. When talking to one person, they had a quaint custom of saying "thee" or "thou" instead of "you."

The Quakers were eager to bring everybody to their way of thinking. So they went about preaching their doctrines on the public streets and in private meetinghouses. In this they were like the other sects of that time. In another way they differed from nearly all of them. They did not believe in trying to force people to change their religious opinions.

It happened that one of these Quaker preachers came to Oxford. Young William, with some of his friends, went to A hear him. It is very likely that these young

Quaker men went for mischief, or, as we say, to have

meet1ng. a g00d time with the Quaker preacher; for, in

those days, young men would sometimes break up the Quaker meetings. If this was their intention, some of them changed

[graphic]

A Quaker.

their minds, for, as they listened to this Quaker, they concluded that he was right after all.

From that night William became a Quaker. He put on the Quaker dress, and refused to take off William his hat to anybody. Like other Quakers, he becomes a tried to make people think as he did, and Quaker, often got into arguments with his fellow students.

At one time he and some other young Quakers so far forgot themselves and their new doctrine of peace Expelled that they set upon a gayly dressed young stu- from dent and stripped him of his gaudy clothes. Oxford. For this William was expelled from the university and sent home in disgrace.

Naturally Sir William, who was a good Church of England man, was angry when this happened. He His was still more angry when William began to say father's thee and thou to him, and to keep his hat on an8erin his father's presence.

"You may thee and thou other folk," shouted the old admiral, " as much as you like. But don't you dare to thee and thou the king, the Duke of York, or me!"

But young William felt sure he was right and would not change his dress, his pronouns, or his opinions, even at the command of his father.

One day, so the story goes, he chanced to meet King Charles himself. William resolutely kept on his hat. The king very politely removed his. William

"Why dost thou remove thy hat, Friend and Charles?" asked William. King

"Because," replied the king, "wherever I Charlesam, it is the custom for only one person to remain covered."

King Charles considered William's conduct a good joke, A joke and laughed heartily when he told the old ad

and miral about it. But Sir William did not take

no joke. jt ^at way. He called our young Quaker into

his presence and berated him well.

"What do you mean, sir," he exclaimed, " by such conduct? You will quit your thecing and thouing, and wearing your hat in the presence of your superiors, and all your other foolish Quaker notions, or else you will quit my house."

"I am very sorry, sir," replied William quietly, "that I cannot quit my foolish Quaker notions, as y o u call them. I must therefore, if you so insist, quit your house."

William's mother pleaded with both her husband and her son, but in vain. William left his father's house and went to London, where he sought out a company of Quakers and joined them. After a time, he became one of their leading preachers, for which he was arrested and thrown into prison.

By this time his father's anger had somewhat cooled, and when he heard of William's imprisonment, he became indigHome nant, but not this time at William. "What,"

again. cried he, when he heard the news, "my son in

prison! And for merely talking on the public street. I will see about that." And off he went to the king. Now Sir

[graphic]

William Penn In Prison.

William was much liked by King Charles, who at once gave orders that young William should be released.

The old admiral now took his son home and allowed him to say thee and thou, and wear his hat, and keep his other Quaker notions. It is said that he even became convinced that the Quakers were not such dreadful people after all. One thing is certain, during the rest of the admiral's life, father and son lived in harmony.

A few years after William's release from prison, the old admiral died. During his last days he obtained a promise from

the king- and the Duke of York (afterward _

-r Tt\ 1 1 . 1 , r . 1 1 . Prom1ses.

James II) that they would befr1end h1s son.

Neither of these men was noted for keeping promises, but they

kept this one.

CHAPTER II
Penn Buys Land for a Quaker Colony

By the death of his father, William Penn became a rich

man; but his wealth did not change his opinions

1 , . Tt . 1 • 1 X , Wealth,

or hab1ts. He rema1ned just as much a Quaker

as before, and still went about preaching the Quaker doctrines.

About this time the persecution of the Quakers or Friends,

as they called themselves, became fiercer than before. King

Charles and his ministers were determined to _

Persecut1on, compel everybody to attend the services of the

Church of England. As the Quakers would not do this, they were seized, fined, and imprisoned. If they built a meetinghouse for themselves, the king's officers would break into it even while they were engaged in worship. They would drive out the poor Quakers, beating them like dogs; and would break windows, and split up the benches. Then they would nail the doors shut and declare the building forfeited to the king because it had been used as a place of unlawful assembly.

The kind heart of William Penn was sorely grieved. He Helping went about, helping the poor Quakers to get out

others. Df jail, sometimes paying their fines. More

than once he himself was fined .and imprisoned.

During these troubles William Penn became a member of a Quaker company which had bought the western part of The New Jersey. The settlers in this Quaker

Quakers colony were, greatly pleased with their new

in New home and kept sending back to England glow

J rsey. jng. acCounts of its beauty and fertility.

They spoke also of the beautiful land on the western side of the great river of the Delawares, where some of them had A good been to trade with the Indians. "It is," said

land. they, "a land of fountains and brooks, most

rich and desirable to dwell in, and only wanteth a wise and diligent people to make it like the ancient Canaan, the glory of the earth."

These letters set William Penn thinking. He was sure Penn plans that there was no peace or safety for the Friends a Quaker in England. There seemed but one way out

colony. 0f their troubles. They must leave their homes

and seek a refuge in the new lands beyond the Atlantic. There they might worship God in their own way and be at peace.

It chanced that King Charles owed Admiral Penn a large amount of money — a sum equal in our days to about a quar

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