and on the suppression of the revolt it was made a condition of the agreement that the Yaqui should live at peace with the Mayo. In 1613, at their own request, the first mission was established in their territory by the Jesuit Father Pedro Mendel, who had visited them some years before, over 3000 persons receiving baptism within fifteen days, in a population variously estimated at from nine to twenty thousand. Within a short time seven mission churches were built in as many towns of the tribe. This was the l>eginning of regular mission work in Sonora.

In 1740 the Mayo, hitherto friendly as a tribe, joined the Yaqui in revolt, apparently at the instance of [Spanish officials jealous of missionary influence. The churches were burned, priests and settlers driven out of the country; and although the rising was put down in the following year after hard fighting, it marked the beginning of the decline of the missions which culminated in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767. After their departure the Indians were for some time without religious teachers, but are now served by secular priests. In 1825-7 they again joined the Yaqui, led by the famous Bandera (Juzucanea) in revolt against Mexican aggression, and have several times since taken occasion to show their sympathy with their fighting kinsmen. The Mayo are sedentary and industrious farmers and mine laborers, and skilful artisans in the towns. They cultivate corn, squashes, beans, tobacco, cotton, and maguey, from which last they distill the mescal intoxicant. Their houses are light structures of cane and poles that ched with palm leaves. They are all Catholic and very much Mexicanized, though they retain their language, and have many of the old Indian ideas still latent in them. Their principal town is Santa Cruz de Mayo, and they are variously estimated at from 7000 to 10,000 souls. The most important study of the language, the Cahita, is a grammar (Arte) by an anonymous Jesuit published in Mexico in 1737.

Alegre, Hist, de la Compania de Jesus (Mexico, 1841); Bancroft, North Mexican Slates (San Francisco, 1886-9); Riban, Triumphos de Nuestra Santa Fe (Madrid. 1645); Wahd, Mexico in 1SS7 (London, 1828).

James Mooney.

Mayor (major, Mair), John, also called Joannes Majoris and Haddingtonus Scotus, a Scotch philosopher and historian, Gleghomie near Haddington, M96; d. at St. Andrew's, 1550. He studied at Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris, where he was graduated as master of arts in the College of St. Barbe in 1494 and as doctor of theology in the College of Montaigu in 1505. He spent the greater part of his remaining life as professor of logic and theology; from 1505-18 at the University of Paris, from 1518-23 at the University of Glasgow, from 1523-5 at the University of St. Andrew's, and from 1525-1530 again at Paris. In 1530 he returned to St. Andrews and was made provost of St. Salvator's College, a position which he occupied till his death. One of the greatest scholastic philosophers of his times, he had among his pupils the future Scotch reformers John Knox, Patrick Hamilton, and George Buchanan. In philosophy he was the chief exponent of the nominalistic or terministic tendency which was then prevalent at the University of Paris, while, as a canonist, he held that the chief ecclesiastical authority does not reside in the pope but in the whole Church. In like manner he held that the source of civil authority lies with the people who transfer it to the ruler and can wrest it from him, even by force, if necessary. He remained a Catholic till his death, though in 1549 he advocated a national Church forScotland. His numerous literary productions were all written in Latin. His chief work, " Historia majoris Britannia-, tain Anglite quam Scotia?" (Paris, 1521 and Edinburgh. 1740). translated into English for the first time by Archibald Constable, " History of Greater Britain, both England and

Scotland" (Edinburgh, 1892), is written in barbarous Latin, but truthfully and faithfully portrays the author's vigour and spirit of independence. His other works are mostly philosophical, viz.: a commentary on Peter Lombard's Books of Sentences (Paris, 1508), "Introductorium" or a commentary on Aristotle's dialectics (Paris, 1508), the lectures which he delivered on logic in the College of Montaigu (Lyons, 1516), commentaries on Aristotle's physical and ethical writings (Paris, 1526), "Qua?stiones logicales" (Paris, 1528), a commentary on the four Gospels (Paris, 1529). He was also the first to edit the so-called "Reportata Parisiensia" of Duns Scotus (Paris, 1517-8).

Mackat, Life of John Major, prefixed to Constable's tr. of Mayor's History (Edinburgh, 1892). The preceding work contains also a complete list of works written by Mayor, and an estimate of them by the translator; Bhown, George Buchanan, Humanist and Reformer (Edinburgh, 1890), 38-41; Law, John Major in Scottish Review, July, 1892.

Michael Ott.

Mayoruna Indians, a noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the Yavari and the Marafion (Amazon) rivers, in north-east Peru and the adjacent portion of Brazil. From the fact that some of them are of light skin and wear beards, a legend has grown up that they are descended from Spanish soldiers of Ursua's expedition (1569), but it is probable that the difference comes from later admixture of captive blood. As a tribe they are full-blood and typically Indian. It has been suggested that the story may have originated from a confusion of " Maranones", the name given to the followers of Ursua and Aguirre, with Mayorunas, which seems to be from the Quichua language of Peru. Markham interprets the name as "Men of Muyu" (Muyu-runa), indicating an ancient residence about Moyobamba (Muyubamba), farther to the west. One of their subtribes is known as "Barbudo" (Spanish, Bearded). Other subtribes are Itucale, Musimo or Musquima, Urarina. The Mayoruna tril)es were among those gathered into the missions of the Mainas province (see Maina Indians) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, being represented in the missions of San Joaquin (Mayoruna proper), Nuestra Senora del Carmen (Mayoruna proper), and San Xavier (Urarina and Itucale). By the repeated attacks of the Portuguese slave-hunters (see Mameluco) between 1680 and 1710, and the revolts of the mission Indians in 1695 and 1767 the Mayoruna were driven to take refuge in their forests and are now wholly savage and particularly hostile to either whites or Indians who enter their territory, even successfully repelling a joint government exploring expedition in 1866. In person they are tall and well formed, with rather delicate features, going perfectly naked, with flowing hair cut across the forehead. Instead of bows, they use spears, clubs and blow-guns, and are famous for the strength of the deadly citrari poison with which they tip their arrows. They avoid the river banks and do not use canoes. The charge of cannibalism has not been proven. (See also Pano.)

Rodriguez, Amazonas u Maraiion (Madrid, 1684); Hervas, CataloQO dc las Lenguas (Madrid, 1800); Markham, Tribes in the Valley of the Amazons in Joum. Anth, Inst., XXIV (London, 1885); Brinton, The American Race (New York. 1891).

James Mooney.

Mayotte, Nossi-Be, and Comoro, Prefecture Apostolic Of (mayotte, Nossibe^s, Et Comore).— Mayotte is the farthest south and most important of the group of Comoro Islands: Mayotte (Maote), Anjuan (Inzuani), Mohilla (Moheli), and Great Comoro (Komoro, i. e. where there is fire, or Angazidya). These islands, with Nossi-Bc (large island) and Santa Maria (Nossi Burai, Nossi Ibrahim), form the archipelago known as "the Satellites of Madagascar". The Comoro Islands, with their craggy evergreen shores, look like the cones of submerged groves separated from the mainland by deep abysses. The summits are not all of the same altitude; the highest point of Mayotte is not over 1800 feet, whereas the highest peak of Anjuan is about 5000 feet, while the central cone of Great Comoro, whose volcanic activity is not yet exhausted, rises to over 7000 feet. Two monsoons, consequently two seasons, alternately affect the climate of the archipelago, which is sometimes visited by cyclones. The soil of these islands is very fertile, and produces in abundance vanilla, cloves, sugar-cane, coffee,etc. The total population is about 80,000, mostly African negroes, often erroneously called Makoas (a Mozambique tribe). There are also some Sakalavas from Madagascar, mostly former slaves freed when the islands were occupied by the French. This Comoro Archipelago was for many centuries an Arabian colony and was once very prosperous. As they navigated along the African coast, the merchants of Idumea and \ emen created a special and interesting type, the Comorinos. Commingled with these Arabian half-breeds, once the sole owners of the country, there are now Banians from Cutch and Hindus from Bombay, who carry on almost the entire commerce. There are also a few European or Creole planters and officials from Reunion or Mauritius. In 1843 the French Government, called in by the sultan, took possession of Mayotte, which became, with Nossi-Be, a post of surveillance over Madagascar. All these islands now form a French colony. In 1844, Mayotte, Nossi-Be, and the Comoros were made an Apostolic prefecture and confided to the Fathers of the Holy Ghost. In 1898, when the same missionaries were given the ecclesiastical administration of Northern Madagascar, these smaller islands and Santa Maria were attached to the Apostolic Vicariate at Diego Suarez. Santa Maria and Nossi-Be have resident missionaries; the other islands are regularly visited.

The population of these islands is largely Mohammedan and therefore strongly anti-Christian; for this reason little religious progress is made. In all of the islands there are hardly three or four thousand Catholics. There are no Protestants.

Afissioms Coiholica (Rome, 1907).

Alexander Le Rot.

Mayr, Beda, a Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742, at Darting near Augsburg; d. 28 April, 1794, in the monastery of Heiligenkreuz in Donauworth. After studying at Scheyera, Augsburg, Munich and Freiburg im Breisgau, he took vows in the Benedictine monastery of Heiligenkreuz on 29 September, 1762, studied theology at the common study-house of the Bavarian Benedictines in Benediktbeuern, was ordained priest on 6 January, 1766, taught mathematics, philosophy, rhetoric, theology and canon law at his monastery, where he was also librarian and, for some time, prior. The last 28 years of his life he spent in his monastery, with the exception of four years during which he was pastor of Mundling. He was an exemplary religious and a popular preacher, but, as a philosopher, he was imbued with the subjectivistic criticism of Kant and, as a theologian, he was irenic beyond measure. In a letter to Henry Braun, superintendent of the Bavarian schools, he sets forth the opinion that a unification of the Catholic and the Protestant religion is possible. Braun published this letter without the consent of the author under the title " Der erste Schritt zur kunftigen Vereinigung der katholischen und evangelischen Kirche" (Munich, 1778). In consequence Mayr was censured by the Bishop of Augsburg and temporarily forbidden to teach theology. His chief work, "Verthcidigung der natiirlichen, christlichen und katholischen Religion nach den Bedurfnissen unsererZeiten" in three parts (Augsburg, 1787-90), is equally irenic and permeated with the philosophy of Kant. It was placed on the Index in 1792 and a'bly refuted by the

ex-Jesuit Hochbichler (Augsburg, 1790). Lindner (infra) enumerates 58 literary productions of Mayr. T^iey include 21 dramas, four volumes of sermons (Augsburg, 1777), numerous occasional poems, and various treatises on philosophical, theological, and mathematical subjects.

Baader, Lezikon verstorbener baierischer Schriflstellcr des 18 u. 19 Jahrh., I. ii (Augsburg u. Leipzig, 1825), 12-16; Lindner, Die Schriftstcller des Benediktiner Ordens im hetdigem KoniQreich Bayem text 1750, II (Ratisbon, 1880), 137-11.

Michael Ott.

Mayron (de Mayronis), Francis, b. about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered the Franciscan order at the neighbouring Digne (or Sisteron). He had been teaching at the University of Paris for a long time as bachelor of theology, when, on 24 May, 1323, John XXII, at the request of King Robert of Naples, commanded the chancellor of the university to confer the degree of master of theology upon him. On 27 Sept., 1317, St. Elzear de Sabran died at Paris in Francis's arms, Francis was afterwards sent to Italy, and died at Piacenza, probably 26 July, 1327. It is generally accepted that Mayron introduced the famous "Actus Sorbonicus" into the University of Paris. This occurred at a disputation lasting from 5 a. m. to 7 p. m., in which the advocate had to defend his theses against any and all opponents who might offer to attack them, without any assistance and without either food or drink. Denifle has, however, denied this ("Chartularium Universit. Paris", II, Paris, 1891, 273), though only for this reason, that no "document" mentions anything about any such introduction by Mayron. Mayron was a distinguished pupil of Duns Scotus, whose teaching he usually followed. He was surnamed Doctor acutus, or Doctor illuminatus, also Magister abstractionum. His "Scripta super 4 libros Sententiarum" appeared at Venice, in 1507-8, 151920, 1520, 1526, 1556, 1567.

The treatises added thereto, "De formalitatibus", "De primo principio", "Explanatio divinorum terminorum", are not his, but have been collected from his teachings. The "De univocatione entis", edited with other writings at Ferrara before 1490, is Mayron's. His work "Connatus", on the sentences, appeared at Treviso in 1476; Basle, 1489, 1579(?); Cologne, 1510. Distinct from the latter are the "ConflatiTe ", Lyons, 1579; "Passus super Universalia", "Prsedicamenta", etc., Bologna, 1479, Lerida, 1485, Toulouse, 1490, Venice, 1489; "Sermones de tempore cum Quadragesimali", two editions without place or date, probably Brussels, 1483, and Cologne, Venice, 1491; "Sermones de Sanctis", Venice, 1493, Basle, 1498 (with fourteen dissertations); "Tractatus de Conceptione B.M.V.", ed. Alva and Astorga in " Monuments Seraphica pro Immaculata Conceptione", Louvain, 1665; "Theologicaj Veritates in St. Augustinum de Civitate Dei", Cologne, 1473, Treviso, 1476, Toulouse, 1488, Venice, 1489(?);" Veritates ex libris St. Augustini deTrinitate", Lyons, 1520. There are many other unedited writings on the works of St. Augustine, and philosophical and theological works, which testify to the extensive knowledge and the penetrating intellect of this eminent pupil of Duns Scotus. The treatise, "De celebratione Missse ", is also probably by him (cf. Ad. Franz, "Die Messe im deutschen Mittelalter", Freiburg, 1902, 493-5).

Rinonico A Pisis, Liber Conformitatum in Analecta Francisrano.IV (Quaracchi. 1906).339, 523,540, 544; Waddino, Scriptores Ordinis Minorum (Rome, 1650). 123-5; ibid. (1806). 84; ibid. (1906), 85-6; Sbaralea, Supplementum ad Scriptores O.M. (Rome, 1806). 267-72 (2nd ed.. ibid., 1908), 283-88; Joh. A S. Antonio, Bibliotheea universa franciscana, I (Madrid, 1732), 405 sq.; Feret, La Facidtf de. Thiologie de Paris, III, 323-30 (Paris, 1884—); Stockl, Geschichte der Philosophic im Milletalter, II (Mainz. 1865). II. 86S; Hat/beau. Histoirede la Philosophieseolastigue, II, ii (Paris, 1SS0). 2i)Hsq.; Hurteh, Nomenclator liierarius, II (Innsbruck, 1906), 522-25; Chevalier, Repertoire de sources hist., II (Paris. 1907), 3271.

Michael Bihl.

Mazarin, Jules, b. either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; d. at Vincennes,"9 March, 1661. His father was majordomo to the Colonna family at Rome. One of his uncles, Giulio Mazarini (1544-1622), a Jesuit, enjoyed a great reputation in Italy, particularly at Bologna, as a preacher, and published several volumes of sacred eloquence. His youth was full of excitement: he accompanied the future Cardinal Colonna to Madrid; he was. in turn a captain of pontifical troops and then a pontifical diplomat in the Valtelline War (1624) and the Mantuan War of Succession (162S-30). The truce which he negotiated (26 October, 1630) between the French, on one side, and the Spaniards and the Duke of Savoy, on the other, won for him the esteem of Richelieu, who was well pleased at his letting Pignerol


Tomb Of Cardinal Mazarin
Coyeevox, Louvre

fall into the hands of the French. The Spaniards tried to injure him with Pope Urban VIII, but the influence of Cardinal Antonio Barberini and a letter from Richelieu saved him. He became canon of St. John Lateran, vice-legate at Avignon (1632), and nuncio extraordinary in France (1634). The Spaniards complained that in this last post Mazarin made it his exclusive business to support Richelieu's policy, and he was dismissed from the nunciature by Urban VIII (17 Jan., 1636). Soon after leaving the papal service, he went to Paris, placed himself at Richelieu's disposition, and was naturalized as a French subject in April, 1639. Richelieu commissioned him, late in 1640. to sign a secret treaty between France and Prince Thomas of Savoy, and caused him to be made a cardinal on 16 Dec, 1641. Shortly before Richelieu's death, Mazarin by a piece of clever management, had l>een able to effect the reoccupation of Sedan by French troops, and Richelieu on his deathbed(4 Dec, 1642) recommended him to the king. On the death of Louis XIII (14 May, 1642), Anne of Austria, leaving the Due d'Orleans the shadowy title of lieutenant-general of the kingdom, gave the reality of power to Mazarin, who first pretended to be on the point of setting out for Italy, and then pretended that his acceptance of office was only provisional, until such time as the peace of Europe should l>e re-established.

But Mazarin, like Richelieu, was, in the event, to retain power until his death, first under the queen regent and then under the king after Louis XIV (q. v.) had attained his majority. His very humble appearance and manner, his gentle and kindly ways, had

contributed to his elevation, and Anne's affection for him was the best guarantee of his continuance in office. The precise character of his relations with Anne of Austria is one of the enigmas of history. Certain letters of Anne of Austria to Mazarin, published by Cousin, and admissions made by Anne to Mme de Brienne and recorded in the Memoirs of Lomeme de Brienne, prove that the queen regent was deeply attached to the cardinal. Still, "my sensibilities have no part in itshe said to Mme de Brienne. Few historians give credence to Anne's assertion on this point, and some go so far as to accept the allegations of the Princess Palatine in her letters of 1717, 1718, and 1722, according to which Anne of Austria and Mazarin were married. M. Loiseleur, who has made a careful study of the problem, believes that Mazarin was never married; it is certain that he retained the title and insignia of a cardinal until his death; probably he was even a cardinal-priest, though he never visited Rome after his elevation to the purple and seems never to have received the hat. And in any case he held the title of Bishop of Metz from 1653 to 1658.

Mazarin continued Richelieu's policy against the House of Austria. Aided by the victories of Conde" and Turenne, he succeeded in bringing the Thirty Years' War to a conclusion with the Treaties of Monster and OsnabrOck (Treaty of Westphalia), which gave Alsace (without Strasburg) to France; and in 1659 he ended the war with Spain in the Peace of the Pyrenees, which gave to France Roussillon, Cerdagne, and part of the Low Countries. Twice, in 1651 ana 1652, he was driven out of the country by the Parliamentary Fronde and the Fronde of the Nobles, with the innumerable pamphlets (Mazarinades) which they published against him, but the final defeat of both Frondes was the victory of royal absolutism, and Mazarin thus prepared the way for Louis XIV's omnipotence. Lastly, in 1658, he placed Germany, in some sort, under the young king's protection, by forming the League of the Rhine, which was destined to hold the House of Austria in check. Thus did he lay the foundation of Louis XIV's greatness. His foreign policy was, as Richelieu's had often been, indifferent to the interests of Catholicism: the Peace of Westphalia gave its solemn sanction to the legal existence of Calvinism in Germany, and, while the nuncio vainly protested, Protestant princes were rewarded with secularized bishoprics and abbacies for their political opposition to Austria. Neither did it matter much to him whether the monarchical principle was respected or contemned in a foreign countrv: he was Cromwell's ally. Towards the Protestants he pursued an adroit policy. In 1654 Cromwell opened negotiations with the Calvinists of the South of France, who, the year before, had taken up arms in Ardeehe to secure certain liberties for themselves. Mazarin knew how to keep the Calvinists amused with fine words, promises, and calculated delays: for six years they believed themselves to be on the eve of recovering their privileges, and in the end they obtained nothing. The cardinal well knew how to retain in the king's service valuable Protestants like Turenne and Gassion.

His personal relations wit h the Holy See were hardly cordial. He could not prevent Cardinal Pamfili, a friend of Spain, from being elected pope (15 Sept., 1644) as Innocent X. He received in France, one after the other, Cardinals Antonio and Francesco Barberini, nephews of the late pope, and the Bull of 21 February, 1646, fulminated by Innocent X against the cardinals, who were absenting themselves wit hout authorization, (by the tenor of which Bull Mazarin himself was bound to repair to Rome), was voted by the Parliament of Paris "null and abusive ". Mazarin obtained a decree of the Roval Council forbidding money to be remitted to Rome for expediting Bulls, there was a show of preparing an expedition against Avignon, and Innocent X, yielding to these menaces, ended by restoring their

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