private citizen, and at the investigation his superior talents, aided by the justice of his cause, enabled him to wring from a hostile court a verdict that exonerated him in every particular. After the announcement of the verdict the Lieut.-General intimated to Richardson that he would like to make reparation for the injury that had been done him. Consequently it was arranged that his resignation should be withdrawn. On this being done Richardson appeared in general orders as promoted to a vacant majority which was dated May 13th, and at the same time was transferred from the 6th Scotch to the 4th Queen's Own Fusiliers. With this regiment Major Richardson served till the 19th of August, being in command of it at an engagement at the "Heights of Passages" on July 3Oth, 1836. Soon after, he returned to England.

To Major Richardson's experiences in Spain we owe the existence of three of his works. '' Movements of the British Legion," referred to before, recounts in the form of a journal the operations from their arrival at San Sebastian, July 27th, 1835, till the attack on the same stronghold, May 5th, 1836. The second edition, published in 1837, contains also the narrative to the close of March, 1837. The book in its first edition is a faithful account of the events of the campaign, and is a worthy tribute to the military capacity of Lieutenant-General De Lacy Evans, the commander-in-chief. But the failure of that officer to promote Richardson to a majority to which he was entitled by seniority, led to a bitter personal quarrel with the Lieutenant-General, who does not seem to have been averse to showing a desire for revenge on the Major, who had worsted him before the Court of Inquiry. As De Lacy Evans had estranged his officers, had infringed the rules of service and had secured a reputation for delay and indecision, he was not invulnerable, and Richardson was always a merciless assailant. Accordingly, in the second part of the second edition, the author seldom loses an opportunity of attributing every failure or disaster to the incapacity of the commander. As a fact, only ten of the fifty experienced officers who had originally embarked in the cause chose to remain. It was easy for the officers to withdraw from the service, but with the rank and file it was very different. They had to stay till their term of service expired, and when this time came their pay was in arrears and no passage to England was to be got. Some re-enlisted, others in their desperation joined the Carlists. Their plight was a melancholy one. Neglected by their native country and cast off without pay by the nation they served, the survivors managed to reach Great Britain in a penniless condition, deplorable examples of the neglect usually shown to the private soldier when the nation no longer requires his services.

The affairs of Spain were made the subject of a debate in the British House of Commons on the motion of Sir Henry Hardinge. In this debate the opportunity was seized by O'Connell and some other members to attack Richardson, but his character and conduct were clearly vindicated. His cause was championed by Captain Boldero and Sir Henry Hardinge, the proposer of the motion. It would be exceedingly unfair even to hint that anything but justice could influence a man of the integrity and noble character of Sir Henry Hardinge, but his interest in Richardson in this connection may have arisen from his kindly remembrance of Richardson's father when they served in the same regiment. Sir Henry Hardinge began that military career which shone so brilliantly at Albuera and at Ferozshuhr, as an ensign in the Queen's Rangers in 1798 in Upper Canada, when Dr. Richardson was assistant surgeon of the same corps.

No better example of the appreciation of the subtleties of language can be found than in the volume, "Movements of the British Legion." At p. 162, in discussing the unhealthy and uncomfortable condition of the hospitals at Vitoria, Richardson had said:

"Things are said to have been better managed in Portugal under Mr. Alcock, who is second in rank of the Medical Department here." Mr. Alcock, considering that he had been complimented at the expense of his chief, wrote to the author, asking that the statement be amended or omitted in any future edition. Richardson replied, begging him "to consider it, however, as one of the typographical errors, and that 'said' should be in italics, not 'second.' You cannot fail to observe that this alteration will give a totally distinct reading to the passage." This amende honorable has something so genuinely clever about it that it deserves this special notice. It is scarcely paralleled even by Lord Robert Cecil's famous apology to Mr. Gladstone as related by Justin McCarthy.

Richardson's second work on the affairs in Spain entitled " Personal Memoirs of Major Richardson," was published in Montreal in 1838. Events, that will be referred to presently, caused him to come to Canada in that year; hence its appearance in this country. In this volume the injustice that he had suffered is submitted to the public. The documentary evidence adduced clearly shows that he pursued the only course consistent with honor and dignity. As he himself says, p. 144:

'' By the cold and the calculating—by the selfish and the prudent—I shall no doubt be considered as having adopted a course more chivalrous than wise in the uniform opposition I have shown to the various measures of oppression—so unworthily—so ignobly arrayed against me. By those, however, of high honour—of proud and independent feeling—by those who are incapable of sacrificing the approval of the inward man to mere considerations of personal interests and expediency, I shall be judged in a nobler spirit. They, at least, will admit, that in adopting the line of conduct unfolded in the pages of this brief and local memoir, I have studied that which was most befitting an honourable mind. As I have had elsewhere reason to observe, never did a more cruel system of injustice seek to work its slow and sinuous course beneath the mantle of liberalism. Every engine of his power had been put in motion by General Evans, to accomplish the ruin of an officer, who had in no other way offended than by refusing tamely to submit—firstly, to his injustice—secondly, to his oppression, and that the utter overthrow of such officer has not been accomplished, is attributable, not to any forbearance on the part of his persecutor, but to his own innate integrity and right."

His third work was a satire, not issued, however, in book form, but as a serial in The New Era Or CanaDian Chronicle, a paper published by Richardson in Brockville in 1841 and 1842. Theodore Hook in his last volume had transferred his hero, Jack Brag, to the staff of De Lacy Evans in Spain as Acting Assistant DeputyDeputy Assistant Commissary General. Richardson saw his opportunity and took Hook's hero successfully in hand. Hook was pleased with the continuation of his satire and made an effort to secure a publisher for it. He went to Colburn and to Bentley, but they declined to accept it as they considered the delineation of the characters too faithful a reflection of the originals, and the strictures on the Radicals at Westminster too severe.

In 1837 the political affairs of the Canadas caused no little alarm to the British Government of the day. Richardson, eager again to see active service, more particularly in defence of his native land, against those who would have robbed Britain of her fairest colony,embarked at London on the 18th of February, 1838, for Canada,by way of New York. He was accompanied by his wife, a member of a family in Essex, whom he had married about the year 1830. Her family name is not recorded that I have seen, and a diligent inquiry among Richardson's relatives, who knew her, has proved fruitless in the matter. All, however, agree in saying that she was accomplished, talented, and possessed of some literary ability, and that they were devotedly attached to each other.

While waiting in New York for four days Richardson met the Earl of Gosford and Sir Francis Bond Head,who had lately arrived from the Canadas on their way to England. He had a letter of introduction from Lord Glenelg, Colonial Secretary, to Sir Francis, in which was expressed the desire that some official position should be given him in his native province. Sir Francis was so concerned and agitated, probably through fear that violence might be done him by some sympathizers with the rebels in Canada, that after reading the letter he returned it to the Major unsealed, with a request to present it with his compliments to his successor, Sir George Arthur.

On the 29th of March he went by boat to Albany, thence by railroad to Utica, then by coach through Auburn, Geneva, Rochester and Lockport to Lewiston, where he arrived on Wednesday, the 3rd of April. The mingled feelings with which he viewed his native village of Queenston, a spot hallowed with so many recollections, are well described at the close of the second chapter of his " Eight Years in Canada."

'' We reached Lewiston a few miles below the Falls of Niagara about 6 o'clock; and from that point beheld, for the first time since my return to the country and in its most interesting aspect, the Canadian shore. Opposite to Lewiston is the small village of Queenston, and overhanging the latter, the heights on which my early friend and military patron—the warrior beneath whose bright example my young heart had been trained to a love of heroism, and who had procured me my first commission in the service—had perished in the noble but unequal conflict with a foe invading almost from the spot on which I stood. More than five-and-twenty years had gone by, but the memory of the departed Brock lived as vividly in the hearts of a grateful people as it had in the early days of his fall; and in the monument which crowned the height, and which no ruffian hand had yet attempted to desecrate, was evidenced the strong and praiseworthy desire to perpetuate a memory as honored as it was loved. This moment was to me particularly exciting, for it brought with it the stirring reminiscences of the camp, and caused me to revert to many a trying scene in which my younger days had been passed. Since that period I had numbered a good many years, and had experienced in other climes a more than ordinary portion of the vicissitudes of human life; but not one of these had the freshness aud warmth of recollection of my earlier services in America, in which (independently of the fact of my having been present at the capture of Detroit, under the gallant soldier whose bones reposed beneath the monument on which my gaze was rivetted, as if through the influence of an irresistible fascination) I had been present in five general engagements, and twelve months a prisoner of war with the enemy before attaining my seventeenth year. These were certainly not ' piping times of peace,' and I must be pardoned the egotism of incidentally alluding to them."

Before leaving London, Richardson had been entrusted with the important duty of furnishing political information to the London Times. In availing itself of the services of a writer so singularly competent and eligible as Richardson, the foremost of English dailies showed both enterprise and sagacity. In those times it was well to have sources of information on what was taking place in the Canadas, other than the official despatches of the governors and the news letters appearing in the United States press. Richardson began at once to study the political situation in Upper Canada. His opportunities for obtaining information were excellent. His brother Charles, with whom he lived at Niagara, represented that town in the Legislative

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