of passengers carried was 1,807,632,726 and

the revenue was $93,644,428.41. Transfers,

359,006,151.

—Fresh air cars

Sixty street cars, with windows removed, were put in service Nov 21 on the Chicago surface lines.

STRIKES

—Coal miners' strike, Colo.

The Colorado Supreme Court in Denver, Oct 7, admitted John R. Lawson to bail in the sum of $35,000.

See also
Colorado Fuel Axd Iron Co.

—Electric strike, Schenectady, N. Y.

Six thousand of approximately 10,000 union employees of the General Electric Company's plant went on strike Oct 4, for an eight-hour working day. There was no violence. Of the striking men, about 2000 were machinists and the remainder electrical workers. —Munitions strike, Cleveland, O.

Six hundred striking machinists of the Cleveland Automatic Machine Company, manufacturers of shell-making machinery for war orders, who struck Oct I, marched on the Warner-Swazey Company plant Oct 2, and as a result 500 machinists at the latter place voted to demand shorter hours and higher wages under threat of joining the strike.

.—Silk workers' strike, Paterson, N. J.
See
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley

SUBMARINES

A flotilla of four American-built submarines was reported Oct 2 to have safely crossed the Atlantic under its own power and without much discomfort to the crews to join the British naval forces at Gibraltar. The flotilla formed part of a group of ten submarines for which the British Admiralty had contracted in the United States. After the U. S. Government had decreed that the construction of the vessels in this country would be a violation of neutrality the parts were shipped to Canada where the boats were completed in the yards of the Vickers-Maxim Company.

See also

"F-4" (submarine)
Gyroscope

SUBSIDIES
See

DyesJapan

SUGAR

United States

More than one-fifth of the 40 billion pounds of sugar that represent the world's production in 1915 was consumed in the United States says Dun's Review, Oct 23. The consumption of sugar in the United States exclusive of its sugar-producing islands during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915, was calculated by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce, as 8630 million pounds, or 86 pounds per capita.

Of the sugar consumed in this country in 1914-15, 1,941 million pounds were produced

on the mainland, 1281 million pounds in Hawaii. 589 million pounds in Porto Rico, 327 million pounds in the Philippines, and the remainder in foreign countries. Cuba, the leading source of our imported sugar, sent us 4785 million pounds in the last fiscal year, that quantity being nearly four times as much as that from Hawaii and eight times as much as that from Porto Rico.

Beet sugar now leads cane sugar by nearly one billion pounds in the yearly domestic product, having reversed the conditions which obtained 20 years ago. In 1895, for example, according to the Statistical Abstract of the United States, the domestic sugar product totaled approximately 775 million pounds, the share of beet sugar being only 45 million pounds. In 1915 our sugar product had increased to 1941 million pounds, the share of beet having grown to 1448 million and that of cane having decreased to 493 million pounds. Meantime beet sugar has practically disappeared from our imports. Eighteen years ago, when the Cuban supply of cane sugar was cut off by war, we imported nearly 2 billion pounds of beet sugar. After the return of peace in Cuba our imports of beet sugar fell off sharply, and in the last fiscal year beet sugar imports amounted to less than one million pounds.

The cutting off of the sugar supply of European countries has resulted in a remarkable expansion of our sales of sugar to foreign countries. For the fiscal year 1915 they aggregated 582 million pounds, as against 22^ million pounds in 1900 and .)<>'.. million pounds in 1880.

The following table presents the leading changes in the economic position of sugar in 1914-15 as compared with the preceding year:

(Millions of pounds.'

1913-14. 1914-15.

\V orld's sugar product 42 053 40,424

U. S. cane sugar product 601 493

U. S. beet sugar product 1.467 1,448

U. S. Imports: Cuban 4,937 4.785

Hawaiian 1,115 1,281

Prtrtn

Porto

Rican 641

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Philippine 117 327

All other 18 309

U. S. exports sugar 72 582

U. S. consumption of sugar 8,794 8,630

—Customs duties

Information as to the Administration's abandonment of the idea of permitting sugar to go on the free list was conveyed in an announcement from Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo Oct 6. Mr. McAdoo announced that he would recommend in his forthcoming message to Congress that the existing duties on sugar be retained for several years, and, in addition, that the war revenue act be extended until peace should be restored in Europe.

Under the Republican tariff law a duty of 1.96 a pound was levied on sugar. This yielded about $60,000,000 a year. On Mar I, 1014, there was a reduction of 25 per cent in the Republican rate on sugar. At time of writing the Government collected three-fourths of the Republican rate on the product. This yielded in the past year about $45.000,000.

SUICIDE

According to F. L. Hoffman, statistician of the Prudential Insurance Company, during 1914, a total of 4982 persons took their lives in 100 cities in this country, a rate of 20.3 for each 100,000 of population. This is the highest rate since 1909 and the third highest for the past twenty years.

\Vith 618 suicides, the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx had a record of 20.2. Brooklyn, with 234, had a rate of 12.6. Figures for the other boroughs and for the entire city had not been recorded.

Hoboken, with twenty-four suicides and a rate of 33.3, led all the New Jersey cities, and was placed eighth on the list of cities compiled. At the top of the list stood San Francisco, with 234 suicides and a rate of 52.4. Again the figures showed that suicide is committed more frequently on the Pacific Coast than in the East, because San Diego, Sacramento, Los Angeles and Oakland—all in California—follow after San Francisco. In all these cities the rate for 1914 was in excess of their rates for the previous ten years.

Three times as many n>en as women commit suicide, the figures showed, and the favorite method for men was shooting. Almost one-fourth of the women victims took poison.

Mr. Hoffman concluded his study of suicides with the remark: "Laws or municipal ordinances governing the sale of poison at the present time seem not to be properly enforced in many communities, if reliance can be placed upon the published circumstances in individual cases. Much the same conclusion applies to the sale of firearms."

SULPHURIC ACID

A new method of manufacturing sulphuric acid, for which advantages are claimed, is suggested in United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 283. "The Production of Sulphuric Acid and a Proposed New Method of Manufacture," says Dun's Review, Oct 23. The wsential difference of the method is that the gases employed are drawn downward through a spiral flue in place of being drawn through lead chambers or intermediate towers. It is asserted that the resistance of gases to the downward pull and the constant change in their -course through the spiral tend to mix them very intimately. The fact that the gases constantly impinge on the walls of the spiral flue, which can be cooled either by air or water, makes it practicable to maintain the gases at a temperature most favorable for the efficient yield of sulphuric acid. In laboratory tests in which the spiral was utilized, practically all the sulphur dioxid was oxidized to sulphuric acid, only traces being lost through escape or in the system. The lead spiral, the author points out, however, is not intended to replace the Glover tower, nor to do away with the Gay-Lussac tower. It is believed that while the lead spiral will take considerable lead, the great reduction it will effect in the chamber space will make it possible to construct a plant with considerably less lead than is required in the ordinary chamber system. The new type of

plant requires no other device to accelerate the reactions, occupies much less ground space, and would not need as large buildings, and therefore should decrease the initial cost of construction. The method, however, has been tried only on a laboratory scale, and the bulletin refused to predict just how efficient the commercial plant would be, but stated that all indications were that this method offered promise of being economically successful.

SUNDAY CLOSING LAW
Oregon

Oregon's Sunday closing law, which had been on the statutes many years, but to enforce which no attempt had been made until a month before, was declared invalid by the State District Court at Portland, Nov 6. The jaw was declared invalid on the ground that it specified that certain lines of business should not be conducted on the "Lord's Day." The court held this to be religious discrimination. SUTHERLAND, Roderick Dhu

Roderick Dhu Sutherland, former representative in Congress from Nebraska died Oct 18. aged 63.

SWEDEN
See

Oversea Corporations
Staaff, Karl Albert

SWIMMING

With two men tied to him with thirty-five yards of heavy rope and his hands bound, Henry Elionsky, who weighs 265 pounds, swam through Hell Gate in the East River, N. Y., Nov 14. The distance was only one and a half miles, but the feat was amazing, considering the eccentric currents. Near the end of his task the three men came close to drowning in a whirlpool beneath the Queensboro Bridge. Elionsky said that in this crisis the men tied to him struggled and sent him under water repeatedly. The men had been followed by a launch and were rescued. The men tied to him, their arms fastened around Elionsky's waist, weighed 140 pounds and 165 pounds respectively, the rope weighed 18 pounds, thus Elionsky carried 323 pounds.

SWINDLING

See

Banks And BankingFrauds And Rob-
Beries

SWISS SOCIETY FOR ECONOMIC SUR-
VEILLANCE

See
Oversea Corporations

SWITZERLAND

Camille de Coppet was, Dec 16, elected President of the Swiss Republic and Edmund Schulthess, Vice-President. M. de Coppet is a former Minister of Justice and at the time of the election Vice-President of the republic. —Finance

An official statement gives Switzerland's expenses to preserve her neutrality as $51,000,000 up to Nov I.

SYRIAN PROTESTANT COLLEGE AT BEIRUT, SYRIA

See

Jesup, Mrs. Maria Van Antwerp De\vitt TASSIN, Wirt du Vivier

Wirt du Vivier Tassin, for many years chief chemist and assistant curator of the Division of Mineralogy of the National Museum, died in Washington, D. C, Nov 2, in his fortyseventh year. TAXATION

See

Income Tax Rockefeller, John D. United StatesTreasury Dept.Office Of Internal RevenueAnnual Report TEACHERS

See

Education TELEGRAPH

The New York State Public Service Commission decided Sept 23 that telegraph companies might legally send their messages by telephone.

See also

Cables, Ocean Wireless Telegraph TELEPHONE

See

Wireless Telephony TEXAS

See

Potash
TEXAS AND PACIFIC RAILWAY CO.

Receivership for the Texas & Pacific Railway Company, of which George J. Gould was chairman, was asked in a petition filed in Dallas, Tex., Dec 27, by the Bankers' Trust Company of New York through their local attorneys. Default in payment of interest on bonds was alleged. Hearing was set for Jan 31. THANKSGIVING DAY

President Wilson Oct 21, in a proclamation designating Thursday, Nov 25, as Thanksgiving Day, called attention to the fact that the United States has been at peace while most of Europe has been at war. "We have been able to assert our rights and the rights of mankind without breach of friendship with great nations with whom we have had to deal," said the President. THAYER, Mrs. Ezra R.

See

Harvard University THIBET

A despatch from Thibet, Nov 25, said that friendly relations between the Dalai Lama and the Tashi Lama had been restored.

When the British expedition under Col. Younghusband occupied Lhassa, in 1004, the Dalai Lama, the chief of the two great lamas of Thibet, fled to Mongolia. The Chinese government thereupon declared that because of his flight from the "sacred city" the Dalai Lama should be reduced to the rank of a private individual. The Tashi Lama, hitherto considered inferior to the Dalai Lama—although in some parts of the country his religious authority was considered even greater

than that of the Dalai Lama—was chosen to succeed the latter in his temporal and spiritual rights.

When the Tashi Lama succeeded to the Buddhist papacy, however, the spiritual and temporal powers of his office were divided, the latter going to a priestly Council of Regency at Lhassa.

The Dalai Lama returned to Thibet in Jan. 1910, but fled again, this time to India, a month later, pursued by Chinese troops. In July, 1914, just before the outbreak of the European war, a conference of British, Chinese and Thibetan officials, which had been sitting at Simla since the preceding Oct, in an effort to arrive at a determination of the relations between China and Thibet, was terminated without having attained its object.

THOMPSON, William
See
Phillips Exeter Academy

TILEFISH

According to a consular report made public Dec 9, the United States Bureau of Fisheries ended its fishing operations, in connection with the campaign to establish the tilefish in the markets, on Nov 10, when one schooner was on the grounds under private initiative and several others were outfitting for the fishery. With the end of the month there were eight vessels actively engaged, and they had landed in New York ten fares, aggregating 156.500 pounds of tilefish. In the last two days of the month six schooners landed 106,500 pounds. Five of the vessels belonged to the fleet formerly fishing out of New York, and three were from Boston, but all were landing their catch at the former city, and most of them would normally be idle at this period of the year. The exploitation and development of this fishery therefore provides for the economic use of an expensive plant at a time when otherwise it would be unproductive and the lucrative employment of labor which under previously existing conditions often would be idle. In addition to the industrial results, a new and excellent animal food had been placed within reach of the consumer, and the presentation of this phase of the subject would be continued as the supply of tilefish becomes more nearly equal to the demand already created.

"TIMES" DYNAMITING CONSPIRACY

Matthew A. Schmidt, who was arrested in New York, Feb I, 1915 after a five year chase on a charge of being an accomplice of the McNamara brothers in the dynamiting of the Los Angeles Times plant, was convicted, Dec 30, in Los Angeles, Cal., of murder in the first degree after the jury had deliberated forty-five minutes.

The verdict was reached on the first ballot and included a recommendation of life imprisonment for Schmidt.

TISDALL, Fitz Gerald

Fitz Gerald Tisdall, professor of Greek language and literature in the College of the City of New York, died in New York City, Nov 11. He was born in 1840.

TITIAN

A painting by Titian had been discovered in Vienna, according to a report from the Overseas News Agency, Oct 9. The subject of the picture is "The Rape of Lucretia."

TOBACCO MERCHANTS' ASSOCIATION OP THE U. S.

The Tobacco Merchants' Association of the United States, which represents $1,500,000,000 of active capital, made public Oct 21 in New York the names of thirty men who will be its directors. Headquarters will be established in New York City and a nation-wide propaganda started to protect the interests of the tobacco trade.

The list of directors represented directly nine big tobacco manufacturers, three of whom are also cigarette manufacturers, three exclusively cigarette manufacturers, nine cigar manufacturers, of whom one represents the Key West interests, one at Tampa and seven the manufacturers of seed and nickel cigars; one snuff manufacturer; two jobbers; two leaf tobacco dealers; two of the large chain stores, and two small retailers. Not only was every phase of the industry represented by firms, but the directors were so located geographically that every section of the American tobacco world was on the board.

The list is as follows: Jesse A. Bloch, of Bloch Bros., Wheeling, W. Va.; William T. Reed, of Larus & Bro. Co., Richmond, Va.: Jonathan Peterson, of Weyman-Bruton Co., New York; Rawlins D. Best, of Lovell-Buffington Tobacco Co., Covington, Ky.; Hugh Campbell, of United States Tobacco Co., Richmond, Va.; John Bagley. of John Bagley & Co., Detroit, Mich.; Bowman Gray, of R. C. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Winston-Salem, N. C.; Clinton "W. Toms, of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co., New York; George W. Hill, of American Tobacco Co., New York; P. Lorillard Co., not selected yet; George L. Storm, of Tobacco Products Co., New York; Leon Schinasi, of Schinasi Bros., New York; Frederick S. Lucy, of Philip Morris & Co., Ltd., New York; Melville Rcgensburg, of E. Regensburg & Sons, New York; R. G. Sullivan, of R. G. Sulivan, Manchester, N. H.; Asa Lemlein, of E. H. Gato Cigar Co., New York; Theodore Werner, of T. J. Dunn & Co., New York; A. J. Lachman, of West Indies Cigar Co., New York; A. L. Sylvester, of American Cigar Co., New York; Chas. J. Eisenlohr, of Otto Eisenlohr & Bro. Philadelphia, Pa.; Frederick Hirschhorn, of United Cigar Manufacturers Co., New York; John H. Fendrich, of H. Fendrich. Evansvile, Ind.j Charles Fox, of F. Miranda & Co., New York; Joseph Mendelsohn, of Mendelsohn, Bornemann & Co., New York; T. M. Buchncr, of Park & Tilford, New York; I. N. Maaskoflf, of I. N. Maaskoff, New York; Nicholas Ehrlich, of Nicholas Ehrlich, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Edward Wise, of United Cigar Stores Co., New York; D. A. Schulte, of A. Schulte, New York; Joseph Simon, of Bennett, Sloan & Co., New York.

TOKIO STOCK EXCHANGE

The Stock Exchange was closed temporarily Nov 30, owing to excessive bull speculation. Shares had rocketed, some showing an advance of 50 to 100 points. The boom was partly a gamble, partly the result of a plethora of money due to war prosperity. TOLEDO UNIVERSITY

It was announced Oct 14 that Dr. Scott Nearing would join the staff of Toledo University, occupying the chair of social sciences. The board of directors does not attempt to control the policy of its faculty. TOMATOES, Canned —Production

Owing to severe storms late in the summer, the total tomato pack in the United States for the 1915 season was 8,469.000 cases, it was reported Dec 2. This was about 55% of the 1914, and 65% of the 1913 pack.

TRADES UNIONS

Set

GermanyTrades Unions
TREATIES

See
Brazil
Chile

South AmericaTreaties
TROELS-LUND, Troels Frederick

Troels Frederick Troels-Lund, the wellknown apostle of "Kulturgeschichte," and one of the three Scandinavians to receive the Nobel prize for literature, was born in Copenhagen in 1830. After studying theology for a while he abandoned it for the study of history. His first work, which appeared in 1871, an erudite biography of Socrates, gave him a great reputation among continental scholars. From 1870 to 1875 he was assistant in the Danish "Geheimarchiv," and after that an instructor in history in the military school at Copenhagen. In 1888 he was made full professor of history, and from that day to the present has been producing many profound volumes, mostly devoted to the subject of Scandinavian history during the sixteenth century. TROJAN, Johannes

The death of Dr. Johannes Trojan, professor of philosophy of the University of Rostock, was reported from Berlin, Nov 23. Prof. Trojan was born in 1837. TRUDEAU, Edward Livingston, M.D.

Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau, the New York physician, died at Saranac Lake, N. Y, Nov 15, at the age of 63.

"TRUSTS"

See

"FlSH TRUST."

Motion Pictures Patents Co.

TUBERCULOSIS

The New York Health Department issued a bulletin, Dec 14, advocating a more extensive use of goat's milk in infants' feeding. The bulletin set forth that the goat belongs to one of the few species of animals that are immune to tuberculosis. An experiment to determine this was being conducted at the Sea View Hospital for consumptive patients by Dr. E. S. McSweeny, medical director. A herd of 26 goats bred by the Dept of Agriculture was being used in the feeding of 125 children.

See also
Friedmann Institute For The Cure Op

Tuberculosis
TUNA

In the Oct bulletin of the National Canners' Association Acting Chief R. L. Emerson of the Food Inspection Department is quoted as follows regarding canned tuna:

"The term 'salad oil" without qualification is held to be applicable only to olive oil The

10

phrase 'Packed in salad oil' should therefore not be used on canned tuna unless the product is packed in olive oil. In case cottonseed oil is used the term should be qualified by the name of this oil.

"The Bureau has not required a statement of the species of tuna to be made upon the label. The Bureau of Fisheries states that the following are entitled to be labeled tuna: Long-finned tuna (Germo alalunga), yellow fin tuna (Germo macro pterus"), leaping tuna (Thnnnus thynnus).

"The fish which are sometimes designated as Bonita tuna and Skip Jack tuna are members of the genera Sarda and Gymnosarda, respectively, and, while related to the tunas, are not properly designated as such but should be known as Bonitas, Bonitos, Skip Jack, etc. The so-called Yellow tail tuna belongs to another family, Carangidae, and is therefore not properly entitled to be called tuna even with qualification." TUPPER, Sir Charles

Sir Charles Tupper, the Canadian statesman and former Prime Minister of Canada, died at Bexley Hill, Kent, in England, Oct 30, in his ninety-fifth year. TURKESTAN

The Russian government has for several years been engaged in an irrigation project purposing to convert large arid areas in Samarkand into fertile land on which cotton may be grown.

The district at present completed, known as the Golodnaya Steppe, lying between the Syr-Darya River and Kizil-Kum Desert, amounts to 125,000 acres, and is only one of the smaller of those already planned. A description of its development is given by Milan Nikolitch in Engineering News (New York, July I.):

What is known as the Golodnaya Steppe— (The Steppe of Hunger) occupies the country enclosed between the Syr-Darya River, the Turkestan Mountain Range, and the Kizil-Kum Desert. It is situated between the 4pth and 4ist parallels and has an average altitude of 927 feet above sea-level. The total area of this country is about 1,000,000 acres, but not all of it can be irrigated. With the completion of the northeastern Golodnaya Steppe irrigation-project, about 218,700 acres will be reclaimed. Surveys and designs for the other portions of the steppe are under way, and in the near future a great portion of the former arid waste will be brought under irrigation. The situation of the Golodnaya Steppe between the rich provinces of Tashkend, Samarkand, and Ferghana, with which it is tied by railroad lines, together with rich soil and favorable climatic conditions, guarantees the success of the enterprise.

The water-supply for the Golodnaya Steppe is diverted from the Syr-Darya River, the only stream which can insure a supply to a large area. Syr-Darya rises in the mountains of the central Tian-shan, where its two branches are known as Narin and Kara-Dana. The total length of the river is about 1430 miles. The Syr-Darya owes its waters to the

melting of snow in the high mountains. Its high-water period occurs in summer, when mostly needed for irrigation.

Early attempts at irrigation did not prove very successful, but with the Russian occupation of the country the idea of reclaiming the Golodnaya Steppe by the water of the SyrDarya was renewed. During the last forty years several attempts have been made, but, owing to various unfortunate circumstances, most of them proved failures. Only the Canal Emperor Nicholas I. was successfully completed. It irrigates an area of about 32,400 acres.

The first steps toward irrigating large areas of the Golodnaya Steppe by the Government date back to 1895, when the first well-organized parties were sent there. The actual work of construction of the northeastern Golodnaya Steppe project began in 1901, and was prosecuted slowly on account of lack of funds until 1911, when the first large appropriation was made and the work vigorously resumed. By the end of 1913 most of the work was completed. The area thus brought under cultivation is 121,500 acres, not counting 32,400 acres, dominated by the Canal Nicholas I., which is to be incorporated into this system. TURKEY

See

European WarTurkey
TURTLE SERUM CURE

See
Friedmann Institute For The Cure Of

Tuberculosis
TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE

Major Robert R. Moton, connected with Tuskegee for twenty-five years, was appointed principal, Dec 13, to succeed the late Booker T. Washington. TYPEWRITING

Margaret B. Owens won the professional world championship in New York City, Oct 25 by typewriting more than 8,000 words in 60 minutes at the rate of 136 words to the minute. TYPHUS

Reports of physicians who had been in Serbia, submitted Oct 21 at a meeting of the New York Academy of Medicine, confirmed the discovery of the germ of typhus made by Dr. Harry Plotz of Mount Sinai Hospital.

The Mexican typhus plague crossed the Rio Grande into Texas, three cases of the disease being located at Laredo, Tex., Dec 23, where hundreds of Mexican refugees had gathered. UNEMPLOYMENT

New York City

Labor conditions indicated Oct 6 that the work of city charities in relieving distress due to unemployment would be about twothirds less the coming winter than in 1914. Both city and private agencies gave as the cause the industrial stimulus of enormous orders for war munitions and other supplies from Europe. The agencies looked for no such situation as that which confronted them the winter before, when a census showed

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