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time, secure and extend the commerce,
and unite the interests, of every part of
" Gentlemen of the House of Commons: " The cheerfulness and prudence which
you have shewn, in providing for the ne
»»er of the King, and the secret mover of the present negociation.
" On the 19th of the same month, whirl* iris Sunday, the Duke sent a message to lord Temple, requesting his lordship to meet Lim at Mr. Pitt's house, at Hayes, in Kent. The Duke was with Mr. Pitt, when his lordship came in, am| had made the same proposition respecting lord Northumberland, which Mr. Pitt had refused, as totally inadmissible; upon the same principle, that the refusal had been made by lord Temple; of which Mr. Pitt had not, until that moment, received the smallest intimation. He assured his Royal Highness, that he was ready to go to St. James's, ' if he could carry the constitution along with him;' --that was his expression.
" Next day the Duke sent lord Frederick Cavendish to Mr. Pitt, with an assurance that the proposition respecting lord Northumberland being at the head of the treasury, was relinquished, provided his lordship was considered in some other way. Mr. Pitt returned the same answer he had given to his Royal Highness. Upon the return of lord Frederick, the Duke offered the treasury to lord Lyttelton, who detired to consult lord Temple and Mr. Pitt. The Duke was displeased with this«nswer, and immediately went to the King ; and having informed bis Majesty of the several answers he bad received, concluded with advising the King to continue his present servants.
" At the same time, lord Temple, and his brother Mr. Grenville, became reconciled through the mediation of the friends of both parties; who declared that this reconciliation Wai oo mure than a family friendship as brothers; and on public principles, only as to measures in future.
" It is in their influence on measures in future, that such circumstances become interesting to the nation. The reconciliation being made, Mr. Grenville, unbosoming himself to his brother, related all the arts and clandestine itepsof the favourite; which, if possible, increased bis brother!:i ardour on every subsequent occasion he had to oppose lord Bute. Both the brothers now entertaining the same opinion, there could be little probability of another separation between them ; consequently, in future, it must be supposed they engaged to act, and to concert their measures together.
" During the negociation with the Duke, parliament had been kept sitting under an expectation of issuing writs for new elections; but that negociation having failed, the subsisting ministers resolved to vindicate the independence of their situations, by asserting the due influence, which of right belonged to the re
[ VOL. XVI, ]
| cessary expences of the present year, deserve my particular acknowledgments. " The many Bills which you have formed for the improvement and augmentatioa of the revenue in its several branches, and the early care which you have taken to discharge a part of the national debt, are
sponsibilily of their offices, and to create a necessity of issuing writs very different from those which had been in expectation.
" The decisive stroke of this contest, was the turning out Mr. Mackenzie, lord Bute's brother; which, they declared, they offered to the public as a mark, that the councils and employments of the state were not separated, notwithstanding the late negociation. And this circumstance gave them a merit in their death, that most of them would never have acquired any other way.
" There was no step they could have taken more personally offensive than this. And to it they added, the dismission of lord Northumberland, and Mr. Fox who had been created lord Holland. As soon as these changes were made, parliament was prorogued.
" The King considered these three dismissions, but most particularly the first, as insults upon himself. Whether the opinion was spontaneouily his own, or whether it was suggested to him, is not material. The language of tha Favourite upon this occasion was—'What! do you mean to destroy the monarchy ?--to annihilate the first of the three estates ?'
" In consequence of these open and avowed acts of hostility to the Favourite, a resolution was taken to open another negociation with Mr. Pitt. Lord Bute and the Duke having both failed, the King himself undertook this negociation. His Majesty sent for Mr. Pitt. He waited upon the King at the Queen's house, on the 20th of June 1765. The consequence of this audience was, the sending for lord Temple. And on the 25th, they waited on hi* Majesty together at the Queen's house; when the following conditions were proposed to them. 1. Mr. Stuart Mackenzie to be restored. 2. Lord Northumberland to be lord chamberlain. S. The King's friends to continue in their present situations.
" To the two first conditions Mr. Pitt was not very averse. Respecting the last, he wished for some explanation. But lord Temple declared against the whole. Upon which the conference ended. The King's negociation haying failed, the duke of Cumberland was again applied to. His Mnjesty having resolved to part with his present servants at any rate, his royal highness had full power to form an administration. The duke of Newcastle, the marquis of Rockingham, and their friends, thought it their duty to accept of his royal highness's invitation. General Conway was made secretary of state, and to him was committed the management of the Ho:ise of Commons." Life of Lord Chatham,
the most effectual methods to establish the public credit upon the surest foundations, and to alleviate by degrees the burdens of my people.
" My Lords, and Gentlemen: " The provisions which have been made for the administration of the government, in case the crown should descend to any of my children under the age of eighteen years, whilst they add strength and security to our present establishment, give me the kindest and most convincing proof of your confidence. The sense whicn I have of the important trust reposed in me, and my desire to repay this mark of your affection, by discharging my part agreeably to your mtentions, in the wanner most beneficial to my people, have concurred to make me execute without delay the powers with which y<w have entrusted me: this is already done; and you may be assured that, as far as it depends upon me, those salutary provisions shall never be ineffectual. It is my ardent wish, and •hall be my constant endeavour, on this and every other occasion, to perpetuate the happiness of my subjects, and to transmit to posterity the blessings of our invaluable constitution."
The Parliament was then prorogued to the llth of July; and was afterwards further prorogued to the 17th of December.
The King's Speech on Opening the Setwon.] December 17, 1765. His Majesty opened the Session with the following Speech to both Houses:
" My Lords, and Gentlemen :
" The present general state of tranquillity in Europe gave me hopes that it would not have been necessary to assemble my parliament sooner than is usual in times of peace.
" But, as matters of importance have lately occurred in some of my colonies in America, which will demand the most serious attention of parliament; and as further informations are daily expected from different parts of that country, of which I shall order the fullest accounts to be prepared for your cousideratkm; I have
thought fit to call you now together in order that opportunity may thereby be given to issue the necessary writs on the many vacancies that have happened in the House of Commons since the last session ; so that the parliament may be full to proceed immediately, after the usual recess, on the consideration of such weighty matters as will then come before you."
The Lards' Addrest of Thanks.'] His
Majesty having retired,
The Earl of Hardwicke * rose and said i
My lords ; our duty to the King, when speaking to his parliament from that royal seat, and the ancient usage of this House, have introduced the form of an immediate return of thanks to the throne, with general assurances of support on such weighty matters as the crown is advised to lay before us.
I should be justly diffident of my own abilities and experience in the proceedings of this House, to be the first to submit an opinion to your lordships as to the proper form of an address, if the speech had opened to us the entire plan of business for the session. But, as in the present conjuncture, his Majesty has only acquainted us, that he shall, (after the usual recess), have matters of the greatest importance, relative to our colonies in America, to lay before us, the trouble I shall give your lordships on this occasion will and ought to be short.
The state of afikirs in America, which is the subject pointed out to us in the Speech, is indeed of the highest magnitude; if I had not heard that term so often misapplied, I should say the greatest in its extent and consequences, that ever came before parliament; it is of the utmost importance to the royal and legislative authority ; to the good order of government; and to the commerce and navigation of these kingdoms. When we enter into this arduous matter, my lords, it should be discussed deliberately, wisely, (nine uUis animorum incendiisj and thoroughly with all the materials necessary to inform and direct our judgments ; with joint deliberation and concurrence of both House* of parliament, and with the fullest attendance of ther members.
These circumstances (all of them es
• Philip Yorke, second earl of Hardwicke. The above Speech is fronTthe origiual in t!i» noble lord's band-writing.
•ential in my poor opinion) cannot take place 'Hill after the holidays, and therefore I shall p repose nothing further in the motion 1 shall take the liberty to make, than to assure his Majesty, that when the accounts of these late transacactions in America hare been received, and are laid before us, we «ill weigh them with art attention equal to their importance, and do every thing which the exigence of affairs shall require.
Two events have occurred since our last meeting very proper subjects for your lordships to express your dutiful sentiments upon at this time ; the one a very agreeable subject of congratulation to the throne ; the increase of the royal family by the birth of a prince. Every event of this kind must give your lordships not only that satisfaction which arises from having before your eyes the most complete examples of domestic felicity in the most exalted situation, but from the sure prospect of the continuance of those invaluable blessings, which we have enjoyed for more than half a century under the Protestant (accession in the House of Brunswick.
The other event (of a very different cast) -which your lordships will certainly make part of your address, is a condolence on the irreparable loss which his Majesty and the kingdom have sustained in the death of the duke of Cumberland.
The motion I shall offer, endeavours to express that just tribute of respect and gratitude which is due to the character of that illustrious prince. I shall not pretend to add much to it, because the national sense of liis royal highness's merit and services stands already recorded in our statute book, and will for ever live in our memories.
One thing, however, your lordships will permit me to recall to your minds, before I •it down, rather to indulge my own feelings, than to reanimate, (which would be quite needless) the fervent and loyal zeal of your lordships, that the conduct, activity and valor, of the duke of Cumberland preserved this country, when a rebellion, impiously and wantonly set on foot, had shaken the throne, and distempered the state. This pleasing and interesting retrospect is alone sufficient to convey the highest idea of his capacity and services, and to transmit his respectable name amongst the other heroes of eur own growth, with lustre to the latest posterity.
The noble lord concluded with moving,
" That an humble Address be presented to his Majesty, to return his Majesty the thanks of this House, for his most gracious Speech from the throne.
" To assure his Majesty, thai, when he shall be pleased to communicate to his parliament the informations and advices which have been, or shall be, received from America, this House will proceed to the consideration of those weighty affairs, with an attention equal to the importance of the subject; and with a resolution to do every thing which the exigency of the case may require.
" To congratulate his Majesty on the birth of a prmce ; and to assure him, that whatever adds to the domestic happiness, stability, and increase, of his illustrious House, from which these kingdoms have received the most important benefits, must always afford the highest satisfaction to his faithful subjects.
" To express our sincere condolence on the loss of his late royal highness the duke of Cumberland; and to assure his Majesty, that the many eminent public and private virtues, the extent of capacity, and the magnanimity of mind, the affection for his Majesty's person, and the eminent services performed for this country, which distinguished that great and excellent prince, as they have left a lasting memorial m his Majesty's royal breast, so have they made an impression never to be erased from the minds of his grateful people."
Then an Amendmentwas proposed to be made to the said Resolution, by inserting, after the words " which the exigency ol the case may require," the following words ; viz. " To express to his Majesty our deep concern and indignation at the dangerous tumults and insurrections which have been raised and fomented in his Majesty's dominions of North America, in opposition to the execution of the laws, and in open defiance of the parliamentary right of Great Britain: and that we embrace with pleasure the earliest opportunity in our power to assure his Majesty, that, fully sensible of the indispensable necessity of vindicating and establishing the just power of the legislature of Great Britain, we will cheerfully concur in every measure, which may strengthen the hands of government, and enforce the legal obedience of the colonies, and their constitutional dependance on the sovereign authority of this kingdom." Which being objected to: after long debate, the question was put, " Whether the said words shall be there inserted ?" It was resolved in the negative.
Then the following Address was agreed to : ,
" Most Gracious Sovereign,
" We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Lords spiritual and temporal in parliament assembled, beg leave to return your Majesty our humble thunks, for your most gracious Speech from the throne.
" We should be wanting in our duty, not to assure your Majesty, that, when your Majesty shall have been pleased to communicate to your parliament those informations and advices which have been, or shall be, received from America, we will proceed to the consideration of those weighty matters, with an attention equal to the importance of the subject, and with a resolution to do every thing which the exigency of the case may require.
" Attentive to every event which affects your Majesty, permit us to congratulate your Majesty on the birth of a prince: whatever adds to your domestic happiness, and the stability and increase of that illustrious House from which these kingdoms have received the most important benefits, must always afford the highest satisfaction to your faithful subjects.
" Animated by the same sentiments of zeal and duty to your Majesty and your royal family, and under the deepest impressions pf concern, we beg leave to approach your throne with our sincere condolence on the loss of his late royal highness the duke of Cumberland.
" The many eminent, public, and private virtues, the extent of capacity, 'and the magnanimity of mind, the att'ection for your Majesty's person, and the eminent services performed for this country, which distinguished that great and excellent prince, as they have left a lasting memorial in your royal breast, so have they made an impression never to be erased from the minds of your grateful people."
The King's Answer.] His Majesty returned this Answer: " My Lords,
" The assurances you give me of your loyalty and affection are truly pleasing to me.
" I have the strongest reliance on your resolution to do every thing that may be most expedient in the present state of my colonies in America.
" I see with particular pleasure those
sentiments of zeal and duty to me and my family with which you express your satisfaction on the birth of my third son, and your concern for the loss I have sustained by the death of the duke of Cumberland."
The Commons' Address of Thanlcs.] The Commons being returned to their House, lord George Cavendish moved,
" That an humble Address be presented to his Majesty, to return his Majesty the thanks of this House for his most gracioua Speech from the throne.
" To assure his Majesty, that we will not fail, when this House shall be supplied with its members, to apply ourselves with the utmost diligence and attention to those important occurrences in America, which his Majesty recommends to our consideration ; and to exert our most zealous endeavours for the honour of his Majesty's government, and the true interest of his people, in all parts of his extended empire.
" To congratulate his Majesty on the late increase of his royal family, by the birth of a prince. His Majesty's happiness and that of his people are one; and every increase of his Majesty's illustrious family is considered by his faithful Commons, as a further security to that religion, and those liberties we enjoy under his Majesty's most auspicious government..
" To offer to his Majesty our sincere condolence on the great loss, which his Majesty and this kingdom have sustained by the death of his late royal highness the duke of Cumberland; whose private and public virtues, whose duty and affection to his Majesty, and whose distinguished merits, and services to this country, as they made his person dear to this nation while he lived, so they cannot fail to render his memory sacred to the latest posterity:"
An Amendment was proposed to be made to the question, by inserting, after the words " extended empire", these words, " to express our just resentment and indignation at the outrageous tumults and insurrections which have been excited and carried on in North America, and at the resistance given by open and rebellious force, to the execution of the laws in that part of his Majesty's dominions; to assure his Majesty that his faithful Commons, animated with the warmest duty and attachment to his royal person and government, and to the constitution of these kingdoms, will firmly and effectually support his Majesty in all such measures as shall be necessary for preserving aud Majesty our sincere condolence on the great loss, which your Majesty and this kingdom have sustained by the death of his late royal highness the duke of Cumberland ; whose private and public virtues, whose duty and affection to your Majesty, and whose distinguished merits, and services to this country, as they made his person dear to this nation while he lived, so they cannot fail to render his memory sacred to the latest posterity."
securing the legal dependance of the colonies upon this their mother country; for enforcing their due obedience to the laws; for maintaining the dignity of the crown, and asserting the indubitable and fundamental rights of the legislature of Great Britain." *
And the said proposed Amendment was, by leave of the House, withdrawn ; and the original Address agreed to, as follows:
" Most Gracious Sovereign ;
" We, your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of Great Britaio in parliament assembled, beg leave to return your Majesty the thanks of this House, for your most gracious Speech from the throne : and to assure your Majesty, that we will not fail, when this House snail be supplied with its members, to apply ourselves with the utmost diligence and attention to those important occurrences in America, which your Majesty recommends to our consideration; and to exert our most zealous endeavours for the honour of your Majesty's government, and the true interest of your people, in all parts of your extended empire.
'• Permit us, at the same time, to congratulate your Majesty on the late increase of your royal family, by the birth of a prince Your Majesty's happiness and that of your people are one; and every increase of your Majesty's illustrious family is considered by your faithful Commons, as a further security to that religion, and those liberties we enjoy under your Majesty's most auspicious government.
" We also beg leave to offer to your
• " December 27, 1765. You have to be rare but tram the office an account of what the parliament did, or rather did not do, the day of their meeting; I mean the affair of our Americu colonies relatively to the late imposed Stamp Duty, which our colonists absolutely refuse to pay. The administration are for some indulgence and forbearance to those frowanl children of their mother country: the opposition we for taking vigorous, an they call them, but ( call them violent measures; not less than les tngonadet; and to have the tax collected by tbe troops we have there. For my part, I Wver saw a froward child mended by whipping ; and I would not have the mother country become a step-mother. Onr trade to America bring• in, comuiunitut annu,two millions a year; and the Stamp Duty is but estimated at ioo.OOO/. a year, which I would by no means bring into the stock of the Exchequer at the loaor even the risk of a million a year to the uiiunal stock." Lord Cbesterield to his Son.
The King's Answer.] His Majesty returned this Answer: Gentlemen:
" I return you thanks for this loyal and dutiful Address.
" The satisfaction you express in the increase of my family, and the affectionate share you take in the great loss 1 have sustained by the death of the duke of Cumberland, are fresh proofs of your zeal and loyalty.
" Your resolution at the same time to support the honour of my government, and to provide for the true interest of all my people, cannot but be most acceptable to me. My conduct shall always shew, that I consider their interest as inseparable from my own/'
On the 20th of December, both House* adjourned, to the 14th of January, 1766.
The King's Speech after the Christmas Recess.*] January 14,1766. The King
* •• The parliament did not assemble till the 17th of December, and separated fur the Christmas reress, without transacting any business, except issuing writs tn fill up vacancies. In this interval, a meeting was held at the house iif the marquis of Rockitigharo, for the purpose of arranging measures against the opening of the session, and particularly with respect to the late transactions in America. Among the persons present, were the marquis of Kockingham, lord Egmnnt, general Conway, Mr. Dowdeswell, the earl of Dartmouth, and Mr. Yorke. The most effec'ive and dignified advice was, to declare, hy au art of parliament, the legislative power of Great Britain over America, and inflict penalties of lii^'h treason on those who should impeach that authority, either by speaking or writing. The supremacy of the parentcountry beimr -hus ascertained, it was recommended to bring in a Bill io explain, alter, and amend the Stamp Act, in such a manner as would render the operation easy, and its provisions unexceptionable. The principal alterations were, that duties should be paid in currency, instead of sterling money; offences