in 'proverbs: but the time cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in 'proverbs, but I shall shew you plainly of the Father.

'26 At that day ye shall ask in my name: and I say not unto you, that I will pray the Father for you:

27 For the Father himself loveth you, because ye have loved me, and have believed that I came out from God.

28 I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again, I leave the world, and go to the Father.

20 His disciples said unto him, Lo, now speakest thou plainly, and speakest no 'proverb.

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30 Now are we sure that thou knowest all things, and needest not that any man should ask thee: by this we believe that thou earnest forth from God.

31 Jesus answered them, Do ye now believe?

32 'Behold, the hour cometh, yea, is now come, that ye shall be scattered, every man to 'his own, and shall leave me alone: and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with me.

33 These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world.

■ Matt. M 31. 'Or, hit own home.

CHAPTER XVII.

1 Christ prayeth to his Father to glorify him, 6 to preserve his apostles, Win unity, 17 and truth, 20 to glorify them, and all other believers with him in heaven.

These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee:

2 'As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him.

3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.

4 I have glorified thee on the earth: I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.

5 And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.

6 I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me: and they have kept thy word.

7 Now they have known that all things whatsoever thou hast given me are of thee.

8 For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me; and they have received them, "and have known surely that I came out from thee, and they have believed that thou didst send me.

9 I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.

10 And all mine are thine, and thine are mine; and I am glorified in them.

11 And now I am no more in the world,

> Matt K la > Cbap. M. 17. I

but these are in the world, and I come to thee. Holy Father, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one, as we are.

12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou

Gvest me I have kept, and none of them is it, but the son of perdition; 'that the Scripture might be fulfilled.

13 And now come I to thee; and these things I speak in the world, that they might have my joy fulfilled in themselves.

14 I have given them thy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

15 I pray not that thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that thou shouldest keep them from the evil.

16 They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.

17 Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

18 As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also Bent them into the world.

19 And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be 'sanctified through the truth.

20 Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word;

21 That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me.

22 And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one:

ruL 109.8. « Or, truly sanctified.

23 I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.

24 'Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.

25 O righteous Father, the world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, and these have known that thou hast sent

me.

26 And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them.

12. S

CHAPTER XVIII.

1 Judas betrayeth Jesus. B The officers fall to the ground. 10 Peter tmiteth off Malchus' ear. 12 Jesus is taken, and led unto Annas and Caiaphas. 15 Peter's denial. 19 Jesus examined before Caiaphas. 28 His arraignment before Pilate. 36 His kingdom. 40 The Jews ask Bar abbas to be let loose.

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

3 'Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the Chief Priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

4 Jesus therefore, Knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, "Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the High Priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.

11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put u thy sword into the sheath: the cup whic

my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the High Priest that same year*.

14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

15 5f 'And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the High Priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the High Priest.

16 But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the High Priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not.

18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

19 % The High Priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus 'with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the High Priest so?

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23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

24 'Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the High Priest.

25 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. 'They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

26 One of the servants of the High Priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

28 % "Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto "the hall of judgment: and it was early; "and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might cat the Passover.

29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

oO They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

32 "That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

"Malt.J6.57. »Matt.26.6». >° Matt S7-*. 11 Or, Piwihoot. "Acts 10.88. Mall. £0.19. "Man. S7.11.

» Matt. S7.1». Acu 3. 14.

Verse 1. "A garden."—Matthew says, "a place called Gethsemane" (eh. xxvi. 30), which is hence supposed to hate been the name of the garden ; but was more probably that of a village near which the garden stood, and to which A probably belonged. Luke describe* the going forth as "to the Mount of Olives." Thus it appears that the garden was on, or at the foot of, the Mount of Olives, so that its situation might be indicated by a reference either to the mou..t or to the adjoining village. Those on whom local associations make strong impressions, must feel interest in B plare which was a frequent resort of Christ and his disciples; and, with the precise intimations afforded by the sacred text, there can be no difficulty in deciding that the spot now pointed out to those who visit Jerusalem, as the Garden of Gethsemane, was probably such indeed. It corresponds to all the required conditions: "At the foot of Olivet," says Sandys, "once stood the village of Gethsemane. the place yet fruitful in olives; and near it the delightful gard-*c wherein our Saviour was betrayed." More precisely, the spot is an even plot of ground (Mauntlrell says, not more than fifty-seven yards square), between the brook Kedron and the base of Mount Olivet. "The gardens of Gethsemane are now of a very miserable description, hedged round with a dry stone fence, and provided with a few olive-trees. A coovent has been built on the spot, but it is now in ruins"—Richurdtnn. The olive-trees here alluded to, and which are supposed to mark the more the immediate resort of Christ, are interesting from their antiquity. The Christians ef Jerusalem believe them to have sprung from the roots of those that existed there in the time of our Saviour, the original trees having been all cut down by the Romans, when in want of wood to make crosses and warlike machines. (' Diary of a Tour, &c, by a Field-Officer of Cavalry.') Chateaubriand confirms this; and adds a curious proof of the antiquity of the trees:—" The olive may be said to be immortal, since a fresh tree springs up from the old stump. Those in the Garden of Olivet" (he means this garden] "at Jerusalem are. at least, of the time of the Eastern Empire, as is demonstrated by the following circumstance. In Turkey, every olive-tree found standing by the Mussulmans, when they conquered Asia, pays oue mediae to the treasury; while each of those planted since the conquest is taxed half its produce by the Grand Signior. The eight olive-trees of which we are speaking, are charged only eight medixet.' These trees are unusually large. The spot on which they grow belongs to the Latin monks, who purchased it at their ns expense.

3. "Lanterns and torches." —We introduce some examples of ancient torches, and some modern Oriental ones of torches aud lanterns, to afford the subject such pictorial illustration as it seems capable of receiving. It is very pro bable that the lanterns at this time in use were such as are still common in Western Asia. The construction is at

33 uThen Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the Chief Priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth hear eth my voice.

38 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And whi n he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

39 "But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the Passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

40 "Then cried they all again, saying. Not this man, but Barabbas. Now BaralV bas was a robber.

once simple and ingenious, and well calculated for diffusing a large body of light. It consists of a round top and bottom of tinned copper—the former furnished with a handle, and the latter with a stand for the candle—between which a cylinder of waxed cloth, or even of white paper, is extended over rings of wire. When rested on the ground it assumes the appearance and relative dimensions shown in our cut, the cloth cylinder and rings being pressed or folded down between the bottom and the cover, so that the candle, which rests on the bottom and rises through an opening left in the cover, remains exposed, as if in a very broad-bottomed candlestick. In this state, if a person takes it by the cover to raise it up, the cloth cylinder becomes extended or unfolded, and, while carried along, the weight of the lower part still keeps it in this state of extension. Lanterns of this sort are uncommonly large, being generally from two to three feet in length, by about nine inches in diameter. The third cut, below, represents one of them in both its closed and extended state.

Torches require less description, as the cuts sufficiently explain their character without themselves needing explanation. It will be observed that the Oriental examples consist of a kind of grate, in the form of a cup, for containing the combustibles, sometimes with, but oftener without, B receptacle below, for receiving the burning or spent matter which may happen to fall from the grate. Torches of this kind are also much used in caravans, during the encampments of which, in the open air, on dark nights, a strange effect is produced by a great number of these grate torches being mounted on very tall poles, which are stuck upright in the ground, serving as beacons, and affording light to the caravan.

[graphic]

Persian Lantern; from Morier'i' Second Journey." IVnian Torch and Lantern; from Malcolm's ' History of Perse.

[graphic]

13. "Led him away to Armas."—See the note on Luke iii. 2.

15. "Another disciple."—It is generally agreed that this disciple was John himself; although from the circumstance of his being known to the high-priest, some have inferred that this was some noble follower of Christ whose name*, from prudential considerations, it was deemed necessary to conceal But nothing satisfactory can be alleged to prove that this person was not, or could nut. be John. The objection that the high-priest was not likely to be known, in the manner implied, to the son of a poor fisherman of Galilee, is easily answered by observing that John's father, although a fisherman, was not a poor fisherman (see the introductory note): and, with Doddridge, "Though we cannot imagii e the acquaintance was very intimate, considering the great diversity of their rank and station in life, yet a thousand occurrences occasion some knowledge of each other between persons whose stations are unequal."

17. "The damsel that kept the door."—It seems singular that such an office should be assigned to a female in m important an establishment as that of the high-priest Some think that she performed the office temporarily, the Dm servants having been all engaged in apprehending Jesus. The Ethiopic translator, feeling the objection, takes the liberty of intimating that this "damsel" was the door- keeper's daughter. We have ourselves felt the same objection strongly, the practice appearing so adverse to Oriental habits; and were disposed to consider that the damsel was our acting temporarily in this character. We are still disinclined to thiuk that it was a custom of native growth: but finding that the charge of the door was very commonly entrusted to females nmong the Greeks and Romans, we imagine that the principal persons (always the most ready to adopt foreign customs) among the Jews, had taken it fium them. As the use of the word "damsel" in our translation, might lead to miscunceptiun, it is proper to observe that the original, (rmilrxti) although properly denoting a girl or young maiden, must here, and in other places, where applied to a female servant, be understood, in a popular sense, as used without respect to age. Just as we, by "mate" or " girl," uuderstand commonly a young female, yet apply those terms to female servants of any age. It is desirable to mention this, as, from all we can collect, the office of poiteress was usually discharged by staid, middle aged, or era by old. women.

18. "A fire of coals."—This means a fire of charcoal, as distinguished from one of raw wood. Coal is not anywhere used in the East As chimneys are but little known, charcoal is extensively used, particularly for warming apartments, to avoid the annoyance of smoke, which would necessarily result from the use of wood. The fire of charcoal bums is pans or braziers oi metal or earthenware. (See the note on Jer. xzxvi. 22.)

"// was cold."—Lightfoot notes here, " It was at the very dead of night, almost at the cock-crowing. Our countryman Biddulph. who was at Jerusalem at the very time when they were wont to celebrate the Passover, gives us the reason of this cold, by his own experience. He acknowledged, indeed, that he found it so hot at that time as we usually feel it in our own country about midsummer; that he could not but wonder how Peter at that time of the year should be so cold: but, in a few days, his doubt was resolved; for there were mighty dews fell, which, not being' wholly dried up by the sun, made it very cold, especially in the night." Lightfoot also adverts to one of the traditionary canons, which supposes that there might be frost and snow at the time of the Passover.

28. "Lest they should be defiled."—By the law (Num. xix. 12), whoever touched an unclean person was unclean: the chief priests and elders were therefore afraid to enter the prajtorium, lest they might there contract defilements which would incapacitate them from the duties and privileges of the paschal season. The same reason of course operated to prevent them from entering the prsetorium at the other festivals, which the governor attended for the sake of administering justice and guarding the public peace. To get over this difficulty, there was erected, adjoining the palace, the "pavement." called in Hebrew "Gabbatha" (ch. xix. 13), and which appears to have been an elevated platform, deriving its name of "pavement" (Xjttrrpmt), no doubt, from its being, like other Roman platforms of judgment, paved in mosak with small pieces of diversely-coloured marble. It was probably covered overhead, but open at the sides; so that the Jews, who stood around in the open air, could make to the governor, and receive from him, such oral communications as the occasion rendered necessary. Pilate probably sat on a judgment-seat, which was set upou the pavement. This explanation of the place called Gabbatha, is founded on known facts concerning the open tribunals of Roman magistrates and governors; but considering that, in the present instance, such an erection, or adjunct to the palace, was required whenever the governor was present in Jerusalem, it is not impossible that it may have been nothing more than a kind of paved porch, gallery, or balcony, in front of the building. (See the notes on Matt. xxviL)

"That they might eat the Passover."—But the paschal lamb had been already eaten, the preceding night; for we may be sure that all the Jews ate it the same night on which it was eaten by our Saviour and his disciples; and we know that the whole was necessarily eaten in one night. That which we are here to understand by "the Passover" was certainly therefore not the paschal lamb, to which the name strictly belonged, but the Chagigah, or peace-offerings: namely, the sheep and oxen which were offered and eaten during the continuance of the feast, or rather of the feast of unleavened bread, which, from immediately following the passover, and filling out the week which the eating of the paschal lamb introduced, was popularly included under the general name of the "Passover," as applied to the whole festival occasion. The word " passover" is employed in this popular sense in Luke xxii. 1 ; nor is this latitude of application unsanctioned by the Law, for in Deut. xvi. 2, we read, "Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the Lord thy God, of the flock and of the herd ;" where "the passover of the herd" obviously means something distinct from the paschal lamb, and is interpreted and understood of the "Chagigah."

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