Joseph Tasker, of Middleton Hall, and received from Phis IX. the title of Countess of the Holy Roman or Pontifical States. On the 4th, at Constantinople, aged 115, Dimitriou Antippa, a Greek, who claimed to have been the intimate friend of Robespierre, whose acquaintance he made when visiting Paris in 1791. On the 5th, at Paris, aged 84, Henry Herz, well known as a pianoforte maker and as a prolific composer. In early life he had been a pianist of great reputation. On the same date, at Rome, aged 65, General Kanzler, for many years in the Papal service, and chief of the staff to Lamorieiere in the campaign of 1860. On the 10th, aged44, shot by a lunatic, M. Maynaud, a French electrician, who had laid down the cable in the Seine from Paris to Rouen in 1870, and repaired it under the fire of the Germans. On the same date, at Edinburgh, aged 57, Robert Herdman, H.S.A , a prominent Scottish artist, both as an historical and aportrait painter. On the 11th, at Stanhope, the Bight Bev Vincent W. Byan, D.D., rector of Stanhope, and formerly Bishop of Mauritius. On the same date, at Chester, General William Lenox Ingall, C.B., born June 2, 1822. He entered the army in 1842, served in the Sutlej campaigns of 1845-6, and in the Crimean war, retired as Major-General in 1868, and was Honorary Colonel of the Royal Sussex Regiment (35th Foot) with honorary rank of General. On the 12th, at Shanklin, aged 70, Herbert Giraud, M.D., Deputy Inspector-General of the Bombay Army. He had filled the posts of Professor of Chemistry and of Botany, and afterwards that of Principal at the Grant Medical College, Bombay. On the 13th, at Niederbronn, aged 86, Baron Albert Dietrich, the head of one of the oldest families in Alsace, and a descendant of Dominic Dietrich, the Mayor who ceded Strasburg to Louis XIV. After the annexation of Alsace, Baron Dietrich resigned all public functions rather than take the oath of allegiance to Germany, but continued at the head of his enormous industrial works, which gave employment to upwards of 3,000 people. On the 14th, at Edinburgh, aged 81, the Bev. Dr. William Wilson, joint Convener and Secretary of the Free Church Sustentation Fund Committee. He had played an important part in the disruption of the Scottish Church in 1843. On the same date, at Paris, aged 72, Stephen Heller, pianist and composer, a Hungarian by birth, who had lived the last fifty years of his life in Paris. On the same date, at Childe Okeford, near Blandford, aged 94, Lieutenant-Colonel William Fendall, formerly of the 4th Light Dragoon Guards, with which regiment he served throughout the Peninsular campaign. On the 16th, at Avenue Road, Regent's Park, aged 72, Alderman Sir John Staples, K.C.M.G.. F.8.A., Lord Mayor of London in 1885, the son of John Staples, of Laverstock, Wilts. On the 19th, at Strasburg, aged 57, Professor de Bary, an eminent botanist, whose investigations on the lower alga; and fungi began at an early period of his life. He commenced his studies in Berlin, where he published his first book in 1853. Thence he was called to occupy the chair of Botany at Freiburg, whence he was transferred to Halle, and in 1872 was elected to the same chair in the University of Strasburg. On the 20th, aged 58, Sir Robert Jacob Buxton, of Shadwell Court, Thetford, Norfolk, only son of Sir John, second baronet, and Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Montague Cholmeley, M.P. for South Norfolk, 1871-1885; married Mary Augusta, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel J. Johnstone. On the same date, at Cannes, aged 76, William Henry Pole-Carew, of Antony, Cornwall, formerly M.P. for East Cornwall, and a Special Deputy Warden of the Stannaries. On the 21st, at Headingley, Leeds, aged 57, John W. Inchbold, a distinguished water-colour painter, whose works were highly appreciated by a select few, including Professor Ruskin, the Laureate, Mr. Browning, Lord Houghton, and others. He was a pupil of Mr. Louis Haghe (1847), and afterwards of the Royal Academy. His most successful works were those of Swiss scenes, the Lake of Geneva being his favourite resort. On the same date, at Putney, aged 77, George Robert Waterhouse, for many years Keeper of the Department of Geology in the British Museum, a distinguished geologist, and the anthor of many works on natural history. On the 22nd, in Paris, aged 72, Eugene Labiche, a popular French dramatist, elected an Academician in 1880. On the 30th, at Clanricarde Gardens, aged 76, Edward I'Anson, of Laurence Pountney Hill, London, and Grayshott Park, Hants, the President of the Royal Institute of British Architects. On the same date, in Eaton Square, aged 90, Admiral Henry Eden, of Gillingham Hall, Norfolk, at one period a Lord of the Admiralty. He was son of Thomas Eden, of Wimbledon, and nephew of the first Lord Auckland. He entered the Royal Navy in 1811, and sailed with Lord Amherst on his embassy to China, suffering shipwreck on his return voyage. On the same date, aged 71, James Tennant Caird, of Greenock, senior partner of the firm of Cainl * Sons, engineers and shipbuilders. He commenced life in humble circumstances, but, displaying early great skill in mechanics and mechanical drawing, he rapidly advanced in his employer's favour, and at length became sole owner of the business in which he worked. On the 31st, at Turin, aged 71, Dom Bosco, the founder of the Missions of St. Francis de Sales, called the St. Vincent de Paul of the nineteenth century.

FEBRUARY.

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Henry James Sumner Maine was born in 1822, and was the son of Dr. James Maine, a medical man residing in Oxfordshire. He was educated at Christ's Hospital, and went in due course to Pembroke College, Cambridge. His university career was exceptionally brilliant. In 1842 he carried off the Browne medal for a Greek ode, the Camden medal, and the Chancellor's medal for English verse. Next year he was elected Craven Scholar, and obtained the Browne medal for a Latin ode and epigrams. He took his degree in 1844, being Senior Classic, Senior Chancellor's Classical Medallist, and Senior Optime in Mathematics. He obtained no Fellowship at his own college, there being no vacancy at the time, but he was speedily invited to become Tutor of Trinity Hall, the college of which he was afterwards elected Master. He held his tutorship for two years, and in 1847, at the unusually early age of 25, he was appointed Regius Professor of Civil Law. He held this office until 1854, when he relinquished it in order to undertake the post of Reader in Jurisprudence at the Middle Temple. He had been called to the bar in 1850, being a member both of Lincoln's Inn and of the Middle Temple. He was elected a Bencher of the latter Inn in 1873. The years between 1847 and 1861 were devoted by Sir Henry Maine to study and teaching in connection with those departments of law and the history of institutions which have become inseparably associated with his name. With the exception of an article on " Roman Law and Legal Education," contributed to the "Cambridge Essays" of 1856, it was not until 1861 that the results of his studies were given to the world in any more permanent form than the lectures which he delivered as Professor at Cambridge or Reader at the Middle Temple. The exception is significant of the drift his studies were taking; but his rare literary gifts were not entirely unemployed. Like so many of his contemporaries since distinguished in various departments of literature, such as Mr. Justice Stephen, his lifelong friend Mr. Goldwin Smith, Pro,an, the late Hector of

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Lincoln, and others, he became a frequent contributor to periodical literature and journalism, his relations with which, indeed, were never entirely severed. His last work, " Popular Government," originally appeared in the form of articles contributed to the Quarterly Review, and the Times for many years published essays from his pen on topics of current interest and reviews of books dealing with subjects in which he was specially interested.

It was not, however, until after 1861, when Sir Henry Maine's first important work on "Ancient Law" was published, that his rare gifts and attainments began to be discerned and appreciated by the general world of letters. The "Origin of Species V had been published some fifteen months earlier, and, widely different as were the scope and subjectmatter of the two works, the theory of evolution was a link that bound them together. The "Origin of Species" applies this conception to the phenomena of biology, "Ancient Law" to the phenomena of law and society.

In 1862, a year after the publication of "Ancient Law," Mr. Maine was appointed Legal Member of the GovernorGeneral's Council; an office rendered illustrious not merely by its intrinsic importance but by its connection with the name of Macaulay and his many distinguished successors. To no man of his time could the appointment have been more congenial than to Maine. With his profound knowledge of law there was associated an intellect of exceptional force and rare cultivation, specially versed in the comparative study of institutions, and, as his colleagues in the Government of India were soon to discover, an aptitude and capacity for affairs which might have placed him in the foremost rank of statesmen if he had not preferred to remain a student. His service in India coincided mainly with the viceroyalty of Lord Lawrence, who succeeded Lord Elgin and was succeeded by Lord Mayo; and it was again a happy concurrence of circumstances which placed his legal acquirements and the aptitude generated by his special studies at the service of the State in the carrying out of those reforms in the land-tenures of India which are associated with the name of Lord Lawrence. His services to India were happily not concluded when his appointment came to an end. He was appointed a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India in 1871, and from that time till he left England a few weeks before his death he served his country as one of its most trusted councillors in difficult and critical affairs. He was not fond of official drudgery, and perhaps he did less of routine work than some of his colleagues; but whenever Maine took up a subject seriously, he treated it with a thoroughness and mastery peculiarly his own, and the result was that when his opinion was given it rarely failed to prevail. His authority in matters of law was undisputed, but it was not merely as a lawyer that he gave the best of his mind and life to the service of India. He was cautious to the verge of timidity, sensitive to criticism, and perhaps somewhat too prone to avoid it. Soon after his return from India, Maine was elected to the newly-created Corpus Professorship of Jurisprudence in the University of Oxford. The professorship was practically created in order that he might hold it. During his tenure of the chair from 1871 to 1878, Sir Henry Maine—who was created K.C.S.I. in 1871 on his appointment to the India Council—delivered several series of lectures, the substance of which was embodied in the successive works published by him on the history of institutions and cognate subjects. In the first series published on " Village Communities" he brought his Indian experience to bear with admirable effect on subjects which had long exercised his attention, and combined it with a lucid exposition of the results achieved in Germany by the researches in the same field of Von Maurer, Nasse, and others. This was followed in 1875 by "Lectures on the Early History of Institutions," and in 1883 by " Dissertations on Early Law and Custom." In 1875 Sir Henry Maine delivered the Rede Lecture at Cambridge, characteristically choosing for his subject " The Effects of Observation of India on Modern European Thought; " and in 1878, shortly before resigning his professorship, he delivered a public lecture at Oxford on " Modern Theories of Succession to Property after Death, and the Corrections of them suggested by recent Researches." As a lecturer Sir Henry Maine was singularly effective. His reputation attracted a large audience,

chiefly of graduates, to the little hall of Corpus Christi College, where his lectures were delivered.

In 1877 the mastership of Trinity Hall became vacant by the death of Dr. Geldart. Two candidates presented themselves—the Re v. H. Latham, Senior Fellow, who had long served the College as Tutorwith great devotion and success, and the late Professor Fawcett, who was also a Fellow of the College. The electors were unable to decide between the rival claims. After long and fruitless negotiations between the supporters of the two candidates, a compromise was agreed upon, and the Fellows unanimously agreed to offer the vacant mastership to Sir Henry Maine. He accepted the office and retained it till his death, though his duties as a member of the India Council compelled him to retain his house in London and to reside only intermittently at the Master's Lodgings at Cambridge. In 1885 he was offered by Lord (then Mr. B. A.) Cross, at that time Home Secretary, the post of Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department. He was much tempted by it for a time, but after fully considering the matter he concluded, perhaps wisely, that at his age, and with health which had already given him ground for anxiety, it was not advisable to undertake entirely new duties of a very arduous character. He resolved, in fact, that India had the first claim on his services, and in this decision his friends could not but concur.

Again, when the office of Chief Clerk of the House of Commons became vacant by the resignation of Sir Erskine May— afterwards created Lord Farnborough— in 1886, it was offered by Mr. Gladstone, at that time Prime Minister, to Sir Henry Maine. Maine declined the offer, though he fully appreciated the compliment implied in it. Lastly, when Sir William Harcourt resigned the professorship of International Law, founded by Whewell at Cambridge, Sir Henry Maine was chosen, almost by public acclamation, as his successor. This was a position specially suited to his genius, and for which his studies and researches had qualified him beyond all possible rivalry. He accepted it with pride and gratification, but not without misgiving on account of his health. He thought, however, that it ought to entail his resignation of his seat at the India Council, and he was only with difficulty persuaded to postpone his resignation—which he had announced to his friends on his election to the chair— until certain important matters, in

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which he was specially interested, should be settled.

But in his last work on "Popular Government," published in 1885, just after the demise of the Parliament which had enfranchised the rural householder, and on the very eve of the general election of that year, he seemed to the superficial observer to be inclined to descend from the heights of political speculation and historical inquiry into the noisy warfare of contemporary politics. This was not really the case. "Popular Government" was in its essence the fruit of the same sober and scientific spirit which had produced "Ancient Law." Sir Henry Maine's last work was the counterpart and complement of his first. It was an examination of those a priori theories of society and government which, originally emanating from Rousseau, have almost unconsciously and imperceptibly established themselves as the commonplaces of democratic politics. Sir Henry Maine brought these theories to the bar of experience and common-sense and compelled them to produce their credentials. The last serious literary work he undertook was a masterly essay on India, worthy in all respects of his style and method at their best, contributed to Mr. Humphry Ward's volume, "The Reign of Queen Victoria."

Sir Henry Maine was an F.R.S., and was elected in the place of Emerson as a Foreign Associate of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. He had long been a member of "The Club " founded by Doctor Johnson and his associates, perhaps the most distinguished and select of literary societies in London. He was married in 1849 to his cousin, the daughter of Mr. George Maine, of Kelso, in Roxburghshire. Early in the winter he was persuaded to goto the South of France, to seek rest and change, and whilst staying at Cannes he was seized with an attack of apoplexy on Feb. 3, which proved fatal in a few hours.

Lady Marian Alford, who died suddenly on Feb. 8 at Ashridge, Berkhainpstead, one of the seats of her son, Earl Brownlow, was born in 1817, and was the daughter of the second Marquess of Northampton, the popular President of the Royal Society. In 1841 she married Viscount Alford, eldest son of the first Earl Brownlow, who died in 1851, leaving Lady Marian with two sons —the present Earl Brownlow and his elder brother, who died in 1807. During the thirty-seven years since the death oi he"sband Lady Marian proved herself

to be a most devoted mother and a kind benefactress to all who came within her influence. She took an active interest in the movement for the higher education of women, for the employment of women in all suitable occupations, and especially in the establishment of the School of Art Needlework. Her beautiful book on art needlework will long remain a standard and leading authority on the subject. She was a highly accomplished artist, and has left many very beautiful drawings and water-colour paintings. The well-known "Alford House" at Prince's Gate was built after her own designs, and was one of the earliest examples of the revival of the use of moulded bricks in London street architecture. She had brought the patterns of many of the bricks and mouldings from Italy in 1850. One notable peculiarity of the house is that the kitchen is at the top, so that no odour of cooking can pervade the living or sleeping rooms. She was a warm advocate of cremation, and was one of a small number of ladies of high rank and social influence who had been considering the foundation of a " Ladies' Cremation League," but she was herself buried in the family vault at Bolton, near Grantham.

Count Corti, who had been for nearly forty years in the diplomatic service of his country, was a Piedmontese by birth. He first came to England in 1849 as an Attache to the Sardinian Legation, and he remained here for fifteen years, at the end of which time he had been promoted to the post of First Secretary. After filling several diplomatic posts in Europe, he was, in 1870, appointed as Minister of Italy to the United States. While occupying this post at Washington, he was chosen as arbitrator by England and the United States to decide the questions between the two Governments arising out of the Civil War. These claims were settled by Count Corti with such skilful impartiality as to satisfy the feelings of both parties in the complicated dispute which had arisen between them. In 1875 Count Corti returned to Europe, and was appointed Italian Ambassador at Constantinople. Here he stayed throughout the troublesome times of the Russo-Turkish war. In January 1878 King Victor Emmanuel, whom Count Corti had served first as King of Sardinia and afterwards as King of Italy, died, and one of the first acts of the new King Humbert was to summon Count Corti to Rome to take the charge of the Italian Foreign Office, with a seat in the

Senate. The Treaty of San Stefano was signed in March of that year, and in July the Berlin Congress met to modify that treaty. Count Corti, who had represented his King at Constantinople for three years, and who was at the time Foreign Minister, was naturally selected to represent Italy at the Congress of Berlin, which began on June 13 and brought its labours to a close on July 13. Count Corti was the First Plenipotentiary of Italy, and among those whom he met at the Congress were Lords Beaconsfield, Salisbury, and Odo Russell, Prince Bismarck, who was President of the Congress, and who stated subsequently that he had acted as a representative of Russia, Prince Gortschakoff, Alexander Karatheodori, Count Andrassy, M. Waddington, and other gentlemen representing the several Powers at that great Congress. Count Corti's efforts were directed to the maintenance of peace, but Signor Crispi and the Opposition at Rome severely criticised the policy carried out by the Italian representatives at the Congress, and seemed to have thought that Italy ought to have secured territorial advantages equal to those gained by other Powers. The acquisition of Cyprus by England was especially objected to by the Opposition, and on the reassembling of the Italian Parliament a Ministerial crisis occurred, and Count Corti resigned his post at the Foreign Office and returned to hisold post at Constantinople. In 1886 he was appointed Italian Ambassador to this country, which post he occupied for little more than a year. He was known to have the warmest regard for this country, and this regard and his diplomatic career fitted him admirably for the important office he was called upon to fill. At the end of 1887 Count Corti was recalled. Signor Crispi, who had become Prime Minister, had long been apolitical opponent of Count Corti. He died at Rome, on Feb. 18, after a short illness.

The Eev. George Percy Badger, D.C.L.,an eminent Oriental scholar, was born at Chelmsford in 1815. His youth was passed at Malta, and the thorough knowledge he gained there of the Maltese language led him to devote himself with zeal to the study of Arabic, which he pursued at Bairut. He returned to England in 1841, and after some theological preparation at the Church Missionary College, Islington, he was ordained by the Bishop of London. His knowledge of the East pointed him out to the Archbishop of Canterbury and

the Bishop of London as the best delegate to the Nestorians of Kurdistan and other Eastern Christians, and in this work he was engaged for three years. On his return to England in 1845 he was appointed by the Government chaplain on the Bombay Establishment. Thence he was transferred to Aden, where he chiefly resided during the remainder of his term of service, which expired in 1862. Sir James Outram availed himself of Mr. Badger's help in his dealings with the chiefs in the neighbourhood; and when Sir James was appointed Commander-in-Chief to carry on the Persian war in 1857, Mr. Badger, by Sir James's request, was appointed staff chaplain and Arabic interpreter to the force, and for his services he received the Persian war medal. After helping to settle the differences between the Sultan of Oman and his brother and rival, Mr. Badger returned to England in 1861, and in the same year again joined Sir James Outram in the latter's visit to Egypt. In 1862 he left the service, and devoted himself henceforth mainly to literature. In 1872 he left England for a short time in order to go as secretary and confidential adviser to Sir Bartle Frere, when that gentleman was sent as Special Envoy to the Sultan of Zanzibar; and when that monarch came to this country three years later, Mr. Badger was attached to his Highness as interpreter. In recognition of his various services Mr. Badger was, in 1873, created D.C.L. by the Archbishop of Canterbury, and by Royal Letters Patent was made a Knight of the Crown of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel in the same year, and Knight of the Gleaming Star by the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1880. He was also a Fellow of the Zoological Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, a member of the Bengal Academy of Music, and of the Board of Electors to the Adams Professorship of Arabic at Cambridge. Between the years 1839 and 1883 a large number of books were written by Mr. Badger, most of them dealing with Arabian history and literature, and with his travels. Among these may be mentioned "A History of the Imaums and Sayyids of Oman" (1871); "The Travels of Ludovico Varthema in India and the East, A.d. 1503-8 " (1873) (both these for the Hakluyt Society); an "English-Arabic Lexicon " (1881); and " Muhammad and Muhammadanism," an article in the " Dictionary of Christian Biography." Dr. Badger died on Feb. 21, in his 73rd year, at his residence at 21 Leamington Road Villas, Westbourno Park,

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