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NEW MODELS DESCRIBED
THE EUICK MODEL F
THE BU1CK TOURING CAR
The model F touring car made by the Buick Motor Company, of Jackson, Mich., this year has a two-cylinder, double opposed motor, which is the same engine used last year in model C. The cylinders are of 4^-inch bore by 5-inch stroke, and the makers claim 22 horsepower.
The transmission is of the planetary type with two speeds forward and a reverse. All working parts of the motor are accessible from the top. The lubrication is supplied by a mechanical force feed lubricator. The vertical tube radiator gives the car the approved square end appearance.
The model F has a wheel base of 87 inches and a tread of 56 inches. The tires are 30 by 3V2 inches and the car weighs 1,840 pounds.
THE NEW GAETH CARS
One of the most notable dfsplays of new cars at the Cleveland show this week is that of the line of gasoline vehicles made by the Gaeth Motor Car Company, never before exhibited. The company is not a new one, but has never pushed its cars extensively outside of its home city. There are four models: three four-cylinder touring cars of 20-24. 30-34 and 50-54 horsepower respectively, and a single-cylinder delivery wagon. The mechanical features of the four-cylinder cars are identical, the chief differences being in size,
power, style of bodies and finish. The 50-horsepower model is herewith illustrated. The cylinders arc cast in pairs and are of s'/i-inch bore by 6^-inch stroke. The engine rests on a solid cast bed supported by the frame without the use of a sub-frame. The exhaust valves are mechanically operated and are at the left side of the motor. The inlet valves, which arc automatic, arc in the centers of the cylinders and are housed by a Y-shaped casting. The spark plugs screw horizontally into these housings. The throttling of the motor is accomplished by throttling the carbureter, and the lever which regulates the mixture also turns a screw on the inlet valves to limit the lift of the valves. The two operating levers are linked together and move simultaneously. The valves have full lift when the throttle is open. Throttling is effected either by a pedal or by a lever on the steering wheel. The steering wheel lever may be set for any speed but the pedal returns to the slow position when there is no pressure on it.
Piston grinding is done by a method upon which Mr. (iaeth has applied for a patent, by which the piston rings are ground with the pistons, being held thereon by a special device, making it unnecessary to slip the rings over the pistons after grinding. There are four rings and oil grooves in each piston. The cam shaft, two-to-one gears and valve lifters, are entirely inside the crank case. All bearing cups and main bearings are cast with oil pockets, which fill from the splash. The lower half of the crank case serves simply as an oil pan and is cast with partitions to insure each crank getting its share of oil. There is also an extension cast integral with the bottom half, which houses the steering gear, this being of the Brown-Lipe irreversible type. This arrangement insures lubrication of the steering gear and prevents mud reaching it. There is also an extension on the crank case to which is bolted a sheet aluminum apron protecting the transmission, clutch and driving shaft from dust and mud.
The connecting rods are of manganese bronze, of I section, having a babbitt bearing on the crank pin. The bearing at the piston end is clamped to a hollow steel pin which bears in a bronze bushing in the piston. In its lubrication the oil is scraped from the cylinder walls into the hollow pin and then flows to the bearings.
The speed change gear is of the sliding type, affording three forward speeds and a reverse. Changes are made by a single lever at the right side of the car, and there is an interlocking device making it impossible to change gears while the clutch is engaged. The sliding train is on a square shaft and for high speed it engages an internal gear, giving direct drive. The gears are of number 6 pitch and of 1V2inch face. The bearings are of bronze, lubricated by chain oilers. The clutch is of the expanding band type, 16 inches in diameter and 2 inches wide, and is engaged by forward pressure of a pedal. There is also a pedal operated by the heel, which releases the clutch. The clutch and brakes are not inter-connected and the clutch docs not necessarily release when the brakes are set, permitting the use of the motor as an additional brake in descending hills.
The propeller shaft is fitted with universal joints at both ends. These are of large diameter, with wearing parts hardened. The joints are encased with leather and are packed in grease. The shaft is fitted in the rear with a contracting band service brake, operating on a drum. The torsion rod is hung to a cross member of the frame by a ball and socket joint. The rear axle is a Timken roller bearing one of the floating type. The wheels are driven by jaw clutch hub caps which are keyed to the shaft. The tubular casing of the axle carries the weight of the car. The roller bearings may be adjusted by removing caps on the housings. The front axle is tubular, of large diameter and with Elliot type steering knuckles with the drag link ahead of the axle. The front wheels run on roller bearings.
The Kells radiator is used. On the two smaller cars the thermo-syphon system is employed, an additional water supply being obtained by an auxiliary water tank at the top and back of the cooler. On the 50-horsenower car there is a direct-driven water pump. A fan is placed back of the cooler and a fan cast in the fly wheel aids air circulation. The forward fan is not attached to the cooler so that the latter may be removed without touching the fan. The lubrication is supplied by a Mason-Kipp lubricator placed on the running board and driven by belt from the main engine shaft. The oil is forced through four tubes by a plunger pump operated by a gear and eccentric. Kach cylinder is direct fed and a constant level is maintained in the crank case. The oiler has A capacity of 3 quarts and. if desired, an auxiliary oil
tank is placed beneath the seat, feeding by gravity to the lubricator.
Jump spark ignition is used, with a Connecticut coil, Herz timer and both dry and storage batteries. The timer is placed below the radiator and is driven from the cam shaft. The spark control is on the steering column and is independent of the throttle control.
The 24-horsepower car has a wheel base of 98 inches and 32 by 3'4-inch tires: the 30-horsepowcr car, 104-inch wheel base and 34 by 4-inch tires, and the 50-horsepower car, 109inch wheel base and 34 by 4^2-inch tires. Roi des Beiges or surrey bodies are furnished.
The revolving, air-cooled motor was first taken up and experimented with 8 years ago by the Adams Company, of Dubuque, la., and one of three cylinders, with 4-inch stroke, was eventually built. In the years following the completion of the first motor several others were built on the same principle, but increasing in size until as large as 5-inch bore by 5-inch stroke was reached. This year the most important improvement introduced is the five-cylinder model of this type. Among the advantages claimed by the makers for motors of this type are efficient air cooling, the saving of
explosion and exhaust occur in the usual way, the pistons having the same reciprocal motion in the cylinders.
Each cylinder is complete and cast in one piece. Five of these are machined so as to fit together and are bolted together and to a cast steel bottom flange and a bronze top flange. Each piston is fitted with five rings and is connected to a single steel wrist pin of large size by steel connecting rods having bronze bushings in the pistons. There is also a bronze bushing where each connecting rod joins the wrist pin on the shaft.
The speed of the motor, or the amount of compression to develop the required power at any moment, is controlled by variable compression, intended to compress and explode only the amount of charge needed. The valves are operated by cams at the center of the motor. When maximum power is needed the suction valves close at the end of the suction stroke, allowing the piston to compress the full charge on its return or compression stroke. When less power is required the suction valves are held open for a part of this compression stroke, allowing part of the charge to return whence it came and be taken up by the next cylinder, and the balance of the charge compressed and exploded. It is claimed that this system gives great motor elasticity. The maximum compression is said to be 90 pounds to the square inch. The * motor is rated at 40-45 horsepower. By this system the supply of gas is never throttled, and there is no suction resistance on the pistons.
The valves being closed by centrifugal action, this is proportionate to the need, as the higher the speed the greater the need of positive and quick closing valves. The springs used are made of light piano wire and are mainly to close the valves in starting the engine, when centrifugal action at slow speed might not be sufficient to overcome the resistance caused by cold lubricating oil on the valve stems.
The entire motor mechanism is under and back of the rear seat. Access to this mechanism is had by either raising the back lid or the seat board under the cushion. For general cleaning, etc., the rear scat may be removed, which leaves the entire mechanism uncovered and unobstructed.
There are no gaskets or packed joints about the engine. The cylinders, cylinder heads and part of the central crank case are cast integral, and by removing the bolts, any cylin
motor weight without sacrificing strength; closing the valves by centrifugal action, and lubrication of the cylinders their entire length. An especial advantage claimed for the fivecylinder model is the reduction of vibration under all speeds, by virtue of the constant torque.
The power plant in the case of an engine of this type is compact and may be placed anywhere between the wheels. In the Adams-Farwell car it is slightly forward of the rear axle and well above it. This enables the use of a short final drive chain, with the sprocket placed to one side of the center to give the car unusual center clearance.
The motor is a revolving one, but it is not what is ordinarily termed a rotary engine. The cylinders, pistons, connecting rods, valves, etc., revolve around the vertical crank shaft. This reverses the ordinary practice, although the functions of these parts are identically the same as in the ordinary four-cycle motor; that is, the suction, compression,
der may be quickly removed for examination of the piston, connecting rod or interior of the crank case, without disturbing any other part of the motor. The pistons are fitted rather tightly into the cylinders and the motor, it is said, is run on a jacking frame at least 6 days, allowing the pistons and cylinders to "wear in" without the use of emery or other abrasive material.
No muffler is employed. Auxiliary exhaust ports, uncovered by the pistons, let out the high terminal pressure against baffle plates which deaden the sound of the escaping gases.
All working parts of the motor are oiled automatically by a positive oil pump located just above the motor. The tubes leading from this oil pump to the holes where they enter the center of the motor are as short as possible to minimize the liability to trouble from bending or breaking. The spark is regulated automatically by an automatic timer as the speed of the motor accelerates. The automatic governor advances the spark in proportion to the advancing speed. The spark is not used to regulate the speed of the motor. This device also lengthens the contact as the speed is advanced, that there may be a saving of electrical current at slow speeds. One spark coil is used.
The carbureter is located just at the right above the motor, in the aluminum casting supporting the upper end of the crank shaft. A gasoline well is provided which is connected to the gasoline tank, there being a constant level of gasoline in the well. The motor runs the gasoline pump in this well, which keeps a small amount of gasoline in the small reservoir in the carbureter. The surplus gasoline runs back into the well. When the suction stroke occurs a small valve, or wing, is opened by the inrushing air, which opens a small needle valve in the carbureter, allowing the gasoline to run from the small reservoir into the mixing chamber as it is needed, and unite with the rapidly moving air which passes on to the cylinders.
The motor is cooled by the rapid currents of air due to centrifugal tendencies as the motor revolves. As this air is thrown from the cylinders at the motor circumference, fresh air rushes in at the center to take its place. It is obvious that no dependence is placed on vehicle speed for the cooling of the cylinders, as the air circulates around the cylinders just as rapidly when the car is slowly climbing a steep hill
shaft, as is also the starting lever ratchet, which is at one end. The female parts of the clutches are secured to bronze bushed, loose sleeves, which turn freely on the shaft. To one sleeve are keyed the first and third speed pinions, and to the other sleeve are keyed the second and fourth sped pinions.
The driven or counter shaft, supported by three HessBright ball bearings, is squared near each end to receive the sliding gears for the first and third speeds at the left, and for the second and fourth speeds at the right. A spherical brake drum is secured to this shaft, as is also the final drive sprocket. The reverse drive pinions are supported on a separate shaft. Running nearly parallel with the steering column arc two tubes. A lever at the top of the one at the right slides the second and fourth sliding gears, while the lever at the left slides the first and third sliding gears, and, also, if raised when in a neutral position and moved back, it engages a rod in rhe tube and slides the reverse pinion.
With the two sliding gear levers and the clutch lever, stepping up or down from one gear to another is done, and the speed changing does not require skill as the sliding of one element may be done before disengaging the clutch from the other. Both of the elements may be in mesh at the same time; for instance, if the lever at the left of the steering column is raised and moved backward it slides the reverse gears into mesh with the two first speed gears, which are in a neutral position. Now if the lever at the right of the column is moved backward it slides the second forward gears into mesh. In this position a movement of the clutch lever backward would engage the left clutch and move the car back, or if the clutch lever be moved forward this clutch would be released, the other clutch would engage and the car would move forward on the second gear, the gear on which the car is usually started. Again, while running on the second gear, the left lever may be moved forward, sliding the reverse gears out and the third gear into mesh. When the clutch lever is drawn back the second gear will be released and the third will be engaged. Likewise the fourth may be moved into mesli before disengaging the clutch from the third. Ordinarily the idle gears are moved out of mesh, to avoid noise or frictional loss in idle gears, loose sleeves or clutch. Interlocking mechanisms on the
clutch rocker shafts prevent sliding a gear that is engaged by a clutch, and also prevent engaging a clutch until the gears are fully in mesh.
The system obviously allows quick handling of the car in close quarters in permitting speed changes and reversing without gear shifting, and, also, there are virtually two independent transmissions, either of which will run the car should the clutch of the other slip. The range of speeds with this transmission is unusually great. The fourth gear speed is five and one-half times that of the first.
The upper part of the transmission case forms the base of the motor. It is a bronze casting and is milled, bored and drilled to template and jig to receive Hess-Bright ball bearings for the transmission shaft on one side and to receive motor parts on the other side. The stationary crank shaft is keyed in the central hub in this casting. Two aluminum covers on the upper side and a large aluminum pan on the under side enclose the entire transmission. The aluminum pan on the under side serves as an oil pan and as the oil accumulates in this it allows the gears to be oiled by running therein. The bronze base of the power plant is bolted to the angle steel car frame by six large bolts.
The Adams-Farwell model 7-A car is designed on popular touring car lines, with divided front seat. The rear seat is 50 inches wide, making room for comfortably seating three passengers. The motor is located under the rear seat, leaving ample space under the front seats and the space in the bonnet for storage. In addition to this storage space there is a special space under the rear floor, 5 inches deep, for carrying an extra tire.
The color is blue or as desired. The doors on the inside are fitted with large leather pockets covered by tufted flaps. The space on the back of the front seat, from the level of the tops of the doors down to the floor, is trimmed with leather. An extra pocket is provided in the leather trimmings at the right side of the driver's seat. The floor of the front part is covered with pyramid rubber and the floor of the rear part has two coverings, rubber matting and a pad made of velvet carpet on the top, oil cloth on the bottom and cotton batting between. The running boards are covered with pyramid rubber and have the edges bound with brass. The fenders are of laminated wood. The tires are 34 by 4l/2 inches, front and rear. The wheel base is 108 inches. SAFETY FUEL GENERATOR
The safety fuel system for internal combustion engines, made by the American Generator Company, New York, is, in effect, a small gas plant, taking the place of a gasoline tank and carburter on an automobile or motor boat. It is claimed the tank cannot be exploded, and that holes may be punched
into it without in any way affecting the running of the engine, as the gasoline cannot escape.
The tank is packed solid with an absorbent material which requires but little more time to fill than the ordinary tank, and as all excess gasoline is drawn off through a cock in the bottom, the packing makes it impossible for any fluid to leak through the openings, as there is no fluid in the tank.
Heat in the form of hot exhaust is taken from the exhaust pipes and passed through a radiator passing through the center of the tank, making the gasoline volatile and overcoming the intense cold product by drawing a current of air through gasoline help by absorption. Residium of heavy oil carried in solution in the gasoline is distilled and formed into gas by a device inside the tank.
The tank furnishes a constant supply of dry, heated gas which passes directly to a specially designed mixing valve and regulator where it receives its air and becomes an explosive mixture, passing from the regulator direct to the intake valves of the motor. The entire piping system and connections are large, in no place less than 1 inch in diameter, so that there is little chance of clogging of pipes or openings.
The F. A. C. Company, of Paris, France, manufacturer of voltmeters, ammeters, galvometcrs, and various other electric accessories, has issued a catalogue which is novel in that it is thumb indexed.
A pamphlet entitled "Fashioning a Crankshaft" has been issued by the Electric Vehicle Company, of Hartford. Conn., which deals with the method of making the Columbia shaft, following the European way of machining it cold from a solid block of steel.
The story of an automobile trip of 4.000 miles in 44 days, from Hell Gate to Portland, is interestingly told in a booklet issued by the Olds Motor Works, of Lansing, Mich. It is a description of the race across the continent in Oldsmobile runabouts, told by Huss and Megargcl, who each piloted one of the cars.
The grades of oil made by the A. W. Harris Oil Company, of Providence, R. I., are set forth in a pamphlet just issued by that company.
A book of testimonial letters entitled "What They Say" gives the experiences of Oldsmobile users scattered over the United States and Europe. The picture of Mcphistopheles on the cover, under the title, presumably has no connection with "what they say."
Under the title "Two Americans in a Motor Car," the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, of Brooklyn, publishes an European motor car touring story by Herbert F. Gunnison. The book also contains itineraries and outline guides of sixty desirable