mutual pledge. That in the troubles and difficulties which, within the last seven years, have befallen the craft, they have availed themselves of his name, and authority, and influence, to sustain their drooping fortunes, as far as it has been in their power, has been matter of public notoriety. A sense of justice has restrained him from joining in their processions, as he has been importunately urged by invitations to do, but he has not withheld from them his support.'"

Almost forty years have passed away since the National Grand Bodies assembled in Triennial Session in the City of Baltimore. Behold the change! Those fourteen brave Knights have gone to their reward — not one of them now lives to rejoice at this triumphant return to Baltimore. They sleep peacefully and serenely the last great sleep: peace to their ashes; honor to their names. The railroad and telegraph now traverse populous States, then scarcely known. The Union stretches from ocean to ocean, and holds in its fast embrace great States, whose territory was then unexplored.

From all parts of this wide extended country—from the Atlantic and the Pacific—from the great rivers, with their fertile valleys— from the mountain ranges, with their verdant slopes — from the rugged North and the sunny South—from the great West, whither the star of empire is taking its course, and from the sea-girt populous East—come up here to Baltimore to this Eighteenth Triennial Session of the Grand Encampment of the United States, in companies, in battalions, in regiments, thousands of true Knights, bearing the banners of the Cross, living witnesses of the truth of the resolutions passed by the General Grand Encampment in 1832, that "Political Parties, in assailing the orders of Knighthood, aim a blow at all the free institutions of the country."

The institution which, in 1832, was abused and maligned, its members insulted and degraded, and which could then gather in its National Convention but fourteen tried souls, has survived the abuse, the malignity, the insults, and degradation, and stands before you to-day in its wisdom, strength, and beauty.

In 1832 those fourteen Knights did not disturb the usual tranquillity of Baltimore, and their presence here was unrecognized. Quiet in demeanor, unobtrusive in manner, they came with a firm determination to fully perform their devoirs to Temple Masonry.

In 1871 the authorities of Baltimore, with a liberality of sentiment and a heartiness of greeting which will be gratefully appreciated by every Templar of the United States, welcome us as guests of their municipality. The Templar Knights throng the city—its houses, streets, and squares, and are received by brethren and citizens with a warmth of fraternal, generous hospitality, unbounded and catholic as the principles of Freemasonry.

PART FOUR

SYMBOLISM OF FREEMASONRY

CHAPTER I

SYMBOLISM OF FREEMASONRY

Introduction.

HE study of Symbols is so closely interwoven with Language that it is essentially necessary, in a treatise on Symbology, that we should begin with an examination into the Origin of language itself; for it is to be presumed that language, or rather speech, was the very first effort of man to make his wishes known to his fellow-man. The habitual use of certain words, applied to the same objects, produced the primitive language.

We shall not attempt to follow those who. have supposed that language was derived from certain inorganic sounds predicated upon the "utterances of Animals," called "Bow-Wow" theory by Max Muller and others. Now we must remember that it has been clearly proven by distinguished philologists that "the whole of what we call the human mind is realized in language, and in language only. Our next task would be to try to discover the constituent elements of language, and watch, in their development, the true historical development of the human mind."1 It becomes requisite in order fully to understand "symbolisms," as applied to the Ancient Mysteries, the Religions of the World, and also to Speculative Masonry, that we should be more particular in tracing the genealogy of language, from its very commencement, so far as it is possible to do so, by consulting the works of those distinguished writers of the present century, and more particularly within the last quarter of the century now about to close; and inasmuch as on this particular subject of language there is intimately associated that of the mind, which means "thought" and which, again, means "combination," no better work can possibly be referred to than the Science of Thought, by

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1 Max Muller, "Science of Thought," vol. i., p. 176.

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