Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights (2): The Stone Castles of Latvia and Estonia 1185-1560
The original forced conversion of pagan Livonia, what is now the Baltic states of Latvia and Estonia, was carried out by a military order known as the Brethren of the Sword. In 1236 this order was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights following a catastrophic military defeat. The knights had always consolidated their conquests through networks of castles and fortified places, and the Livonian Chapter of the Teutonic Order built castles of stone. This title covers the developmental and operational history of these fortresses over the length of the Middle Ages. It details how the Baltic fortifications of the Teutonic Knights evolved to reflect the changing nature of siege warfare and the increasing dominance of gunpowder in warfare.
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17th century angle bastions Arensburg Kuressaare artillery tower attack Baltic barrels battle Bauske Bauska Bishop Albert Bishop of Oesel-Wiek brethren brothers built captured chapel Chronicle citizens convent building convent courtyard corner tower crossbows crusader army crusader castles Daugava River defeat defence enclosed Estonia Fellin Viljandi fight fortifications frontier garrison Gauja German Goldingen Henry of Livonia Ikskile inner courtyard Ivan the Terrible Kokenhusen Koknese Koknese Kremon Kuldiga lands Latvia Latvia and Estonia Lennewarden Lithuanians Livonian Branch Livonian castles Livonian Master Livonian Order Livonian Rhymed Chronicle Meinhard Mitau moat Muscovite northern Oesel Oeselian Order's castles original Osprey Direct outer bailey outer wall pagan Prussia raid Rauna reconstruction Reval Riga castle Rigans rocky plateau Ronneburg roofs round towers ruins Russians Saaremaa Samogitia Segewold Sigulda Semgallia sewage tower southern St George's stone castles Swordbrothers territory Terweden Teutonic Knights Teutonic Order took Treaty Treiden Turaida Vilnius Volkwin Wenden Cesis