The Elements of Cognitive Aging: Meta-Analyses of Age-Related Differences in Processing Speed and Their Consequences
The Elements of Cognitive Aging provides a qualitative overview (mostly using graphical meta-analysis) of the vast literature on aging and speeded tasks-bringing together, for the first time, almost everything we know about aging and processing speed. The book investigates age-related slowing in elementary tasks (including updated parameters for the Aging Human Information Processor) and tasks of executive control (inhibition, task shifting, and task coordination). It examines regularities in the age-related effects of these tasks that might hint at underlying brain-related mechanisms, while having a keen eye for alternative explanations (such as increased caution with age). It models the course of speed-of-processing over the lifespan and investigates the influence of generational differences on mental speed. Finally, it examines the influence of age-related mental slowing on other aspects of cognition (working memory, executive control episodic memory, aspects of fluid intelligence), and provides the first systematic review of age-speed-cognition mediation in a longitudinal context.
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History Methodology and Outlook
2 Agerelated Slowing in a QuasiRandom Sample of Studies
3 Is Agerelated Slowing Real? Investigating Threats to the Validity of Brinley Slopes
Agerelated Differences in the Speed of Elementary Operations
The Dimensionality of the Aging Model Human Processor
6 Agerelated Differences in the Speed of Executive Control
7 Lifespan Trajectories
age differences age effect age-related deficit age-related differences age-related effects age-related slowing factor age-related variance antisaccade aspects of cognition average baseline Brinley analysis Brinley function Brinley plot Brinley slopes Cerella Chapter cognitive aging conclusion condition correlation cross-sectional curve data points data set decline dissociations distractors dotted line dummy age group episodic memory equality diagonal estimate executive control explained Figure fixation duration flicker fusion flicker fusion threshold Flynn effect gap detection included indicating inhibition inhibition of return interaction intercept larger latency lexical decision longitudinal measures mediational memory scanning mental rotation meta-analysis multilevel modeling Myerson negative priming older adults panel parameter performance processing speed Q-Q plot response RT older younger RT younger RTolder Salthouse sample sensorimotor short-term memory shows significant Sliwinski slowing ratio spatial tasks Stroop studies subitizing subitizing and counting suggests tapping tion trials typically variables Verhaeghen visual search within-study yield younger adults younger and older zero