History of Europe: From the Commencement of the French Revolution in MDCCLXXXIX [i.e. 1789] to the Restoration of the Bourbons in MDCCCXV [i.e. 1815], Volume 12 (Google eBook)

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Blackwood, 1847
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Contents

Corruption of the nobility and extent to which entails were carried
10
State of the peasantry 14 Statistical details on that subject
11
The church its influence and character
12
Its immense usefulness to the people ib 17 Its great influence in the Spanish contest
13
Spam was still unexhausted by revolutionary passions
14
Composition and character of the French army at this period
15
Their discipline equipment and efficiency
17
Force and character of the British army ig 22 Admirable spirit with which it was animated and regarded by the people
19
23L Character and qualities of the British soldiers
20
Parallel between the British and French troops id
22
Severe discipline Corporal punishments which still subsisted
23
Physical comforts of the British soldiers ib 30 Difficulty of keeping any considerable force together in the interior of the Peninsula
25
Fortunate position of the British troops
26
Military force of Spain at the commencement of the contest ib 33 Character and habits of the officers
27
Military force and physical character of Portugal
28
General corruption and abuses in the military establishment to 36 Amount quality and disposition of the French army at this period in Spain
29
Progress and early forces of the insurrection
30
Vigorous efforts at first made for carrying on the contest
31
Frightful disorders which signalised the commencement of the insurrection in some cities 32
32
Massacres with which the revolution in Valencia commenced
33
Abominable cruelty of Calvo and the insurgents
34
Prudent measures adopted by the nobles at Seville Proceedings of its Junta
35
Fortunate overthrow of the extreme democrats
36
Capture of the French fleet at Cadiz
37
Insurrection in Asturias Galicia Catalonia and Aragon
39
Measures of Napoleon in regard to the insurrection
40
Proceedings of the Notables assembled at Bayonne
41
General recognition of Joseph by the Spanish Notables ib 50 Constitution at Bayonne given by Napoleon to the Spaniards 45s 51 Proceedings of N...
43
New ministry of Joseph and his journey to and arrival and reception at Madrid
45
Universal joy with which the newa of the insurrection is received in Eng land
47
Enthusiasm of the popular party in the cause
48
Noble speech of Mr Sheridan on the Spanish war in parliament ib 57 Reply of Mr Secretary Canning
49
Reflections on this debate
50
Consistence of these views with the true principles of freedom
51
English budget for 1808 ib 61 Immense extent of the supplies which were sent out to Spain from Great Britain
52
Beneficial effects with which these efforts were attended
53
CHAPTER LIV
54
2 Successful operations of Bessieres and Frere in Old Castile and Leon against the insurgents
55
Which had the effect of entirely subduing that part of the country
56
Operations in Aragon First siege of Saragossa
57
6 General concurrence of all classes in the defence
59
First operations of the siege
60
Progress of the besiegers
61
Desperate assault of the town
62
Continued contest in the streets
63
The Spaniards gradually regain the ascendant
64
Operations of Monag in Valencia
65
Description of Valencia and preparations for its defence
66
Attack on the city Its repulse
67
Progress of the insurrection and partial successes of the patriots in that quarter
68
Advance of Cuesta in Leon on the French communications 6ft 18 Operations of Bessieres against Blake and Cuesta in Leon
70
Movements preparatory to a battle on both sides
71
Battle of Rio Seco
73
Farther preparations of Napoleon for the war
74
March of Dupont into Andalusia to 24 Capture of the bridge of Vinta de Alcolea
75
Taking and sack of Cordova jo 26 Accumulation of forces under Castanos round the invaders
77
Dismay of the Spaniards and irresolution of Dupont
78
Retreat of Dupont to Andujar and Baylen
79
Spanish plan of attack and preparatory movements on both sides
80
Character of Dupont
81
Singular manner in which the armies became interlaced
82
Defeat of the French to 35 Tardy arrival of Vedel who shares in the disgrace
84
Capitulation of Dupont
85
Immense sensation which it produces in Spain and over Europe
86
Disastrous effect of the delusive opinion entertained of this victory
87
Opinion of Napoleon on this capitulation
88
Shameful violation of the capitulation by the Spaniards 41 And their disgraceful treatment of the prisoners
89
Departure of Joseph from Madrid and concentration of the French troops behind the Ebro
91
Campaign in Catalonia
92
Defeat of Schwartz near Casa Mansana
93
Universal spread of the insurrection
94
Defeat of a coupdemain by the French against Gerona
95
Expedition against Rosas which is defeated
96
Unsuccessful siege of Gerona to 49 The siege is raised by the Spaniards from Tarragona
97
E0 Universal transports in the Peninsula Entry of the Spanish troops into the capital 98
98
Neglect of any efficient measures in the general exultation
99
Affairs of Portugal and disarming of the Spanish troops in that country ib 63 Progress of the insurrection 101
101
Operations of Loison in the Alentejo
102
The English cabinet resolve on sending succours to Portugal
103
Strange substitution of successive commanders to the British expedition
104
Sir A Wellesley takes the command of the expedition and arrives
57
Mondego Bay
104
Arrival of the British troops at Mondego Bay and proclamation by Sir A Wellesley
106
Landing of the army
107
March of the British troops to Rolica ib 61 Advance of the British to attack the French there
108
Victory of the British
109
The British advance to Vimeira ib 65 Sir A Wellesleys plans are overruled by Sir H Burmrd
111
Description of the field of battle of Vimeira
112
Positions taken up by the two armies
113
Battle of Vimeira
114
Desperate conflict on the left _
115
Defeat of the French ib 71 Sir A Wellesley proposes to follow up the victory
116
But is prevented by Sir Harry Burrard
117
An armistice Is concluded
118
Reasons which led to an armistice on both sides 75 Convention of Cintra
120
A court of inquiry is held and its results
121
Its expedience at that juncture
122
Napoleons views on that subject
123
Disgraceful revelations which are made at Lisbon of the plunder by all ranks in the French army
126
The British troops are placed under the command of Sir John Moore
127
Strength of the united British forces and their advance into Spain
129
Great difficulty in forming a central junta at Madrid 86 Appointment of a central junta at Madrid
130
Miserable condition of the central government and armies on the Ebro
131
The Marquis Romana obtains information of what is going on in Spain
132
Escape of the Marquis and his troops
133
Extraordinary scene at the embarkation of the troops
134
CHAPTER LV
135
Armaments of Austria and negotiations with that power and the Princes of the Rhenish Confederacy
136
Napoleons preparations to meet the danger and great levy of men by the French government
137
Treaty with Prussia ib 5 Interview at Erfurth with Alexander
138
Its secret object and tenor of the conferences held there
139
Fetes and spectacles at Erfurth
140
And on the field of Jena
142
Secret views of both parties at the conference
143
Tenor of the conferences held there
144
Concessions made by Napoleon to Russia and Prussia to 12 Their differences concerning Napoleons marriage and Turkey
145
Treaty with Prussia and Murat declared King of Naples
146
Napoleon returns to Paris and sets out for the Ebro ib 15 Immense force there collected by Napoleon
147
Positions and strength of the Spaniards I4g 17 March position and strength of the British army
149
Deplorable division of the British and Spanish troops
150
Movements on the French left before the arrival of Napoleon
151
Check of Castanos at Logrono
152
Defeat of Blake at Tornosa ib 22 Position of the French and Spanish armies on Napoleons arrival
153
Actions at Espinosa
154
Total defeat of the Spaniards at Reynosa
155
Battle of Burgos and defeat of the Spanish centre ib 26 Movement against Castanos and Palafox
156
Positions of the French and Spanish armies before the battle of Tudela
157
2a Total defeat of the Spaniards
160
Rapid and concentrated advance of the French armies to Madrid ib 3L Forcing of the Somosierra pass r
161
Prodigious agitation at Madrid
162
Capture of the Retire
163
Capitulation of Madrid
164
Napoleons measures for the tranquillising of Spain if 36 Positions of the French corps in the end of December
167
Vast forces at the disposal of the Emperor ib 38 Bold advance of Sir John Moore
168
Determination of Moore to advance and joy which it diffused through the army
169
Advance to Sahagun on the French line of communication
170
Preparations for attacking Soult on the Carrion ib 42 This movement paralyses the farther advance of the French to the south
171
Rapid march of Napoleon with an overwhelming force towards the English troops
172
The English retreat on the line of Galicia ib 45 Gallant action of light cavalry with the enemy and capture of Lefebvre Desnouettes
173
The Emperor continues the pursuit to Astorga
175
But thence returns to Paris
176
Sir John Moore retires to Lugo ib 49 Increasing disorder of the retreat
177
And offers battle which is declined
178
Continues the retreat to Corunna Hardships undergone by the troops
179
Arrival at Corunna of the troops and the transports from Vigo Bay ib 53 Position of the British in front of Corunna
180
Battle of Corunna Commencement of the action
181
Vehement struggle in the centre
182
Mortal wound of Sir John Moore
184
His death ib 59 His grave and veneration with which it is regarded in Spain
185
Extreme gloom which these events produce in the British islea 187
63
Reflections on the campaign its character checkered but on the whole
64
eminently unfavourable to France
189
Reflections on the campaign and effect of Sir John Moores movement
190
Errors which he committed
191
Especially in the undue rapidity of the retreat
192
Errors of Sir David Baird Jb 69 It was public opinion which was really to blame
194
Moores desponding views with regard to the contest
195
Division of opinion in the Austrian cabinet on the war
204
Arguments used on both sides
205
Efforts of Austria to obtain the accession of Russia to the confederacy ib 11 Prussia resolves to remain neutral
208
General effervescence in Germany in aid of the Austrian cause
209
Character of Metternich the Austrian ambassador at Paris
210
Angry interchange of notes between the French and Austrian courts
211
Deep umbrage taken by Austria at the conference of Erfurth
212
Measures for the concentration of the French army to 17 Preparations and forces of Austria
213
Spirit which animated all classes of the Austrian empire
214
Last diplomatic communications at Paris
215
Austrian plan of the campaign
216
Commencement of hostilities by the Austrians
218
Impolitic delay in their early movements
219
First movements of the Austrians and imminent danger of the French
220
Imprudent dispersion of his forces by Berthier and slow advance of the Austrians
221
Faulty movements of Berthier to arrest their progress ib 27 Advance of the Austrians almost cuts in two the French army
222
Napoleon instantly reassembles his army
223
Movements of the two armies towards each other
224
Napoleons plan of operations Its great dangers
225
Positions of the two armies on the night of the 19th
227
Napoleons address to the German confederates A 34 Their dangerous situation
228
Combats of A bemberg 289
230
His defeat by the Emperor
231
Operations of Davoust and the Archduke Charles in the centre
232
Attack and capture of Ratisbon by the Austrians
233
Preparatory movements on both sides
234
Description of the field of battle
235
Battle of Echmubl
236
Napoleon gains the victory
237
Desperate cavalry action in front of Ratisbon
238
In which the Austrian horse are at length overthrown
239
Operations against Ratisbon by the French and wound of Napoleon
241
Great results of these actions
242
The indefatigable activity of Napoleon and his soldiers was the principal cause of these successes
243
Impressive scene in the conferring of military honours at Ratisbon
244
Defeat of the Bavarians by Hiller
245
Successful operations of the Archduke John in Italy
246
Total defeat of Eugene Beauhamais at Sacile
247
Important effects of this victory on the Italian campaign
248
Hopes which the commencement of the campaign afforded to the Allies
249
CHAPTER LVII
250
Defensive measures of the Archduke Charles
251
3 Napoleon advances to the borders of the Traun
252
March of the army to Ebersberg
253
Description of the scenery near Salzburg ib 6 Causes of its extraordinary beauty
254
Description of the position of Ebersberg _
255
And of the Austrian corps which occupied it to 9 Massena resolves to attack Desperate gallantry of the French
256
After a frightful struggle the post is still maintained
257
After a desperate struggle the French gain the pass
258
Hiller falls back towards Vienna
259
Advance of the French army towards Vienna
260
And arrives before that city
261
Napoleons observation on Richard Cceur de Lion ib 16 Ineffectual attempt to defend Vienna
262
Napoleons measures to reduce Vienna
263
Napoleons first attentions to the future Empress Marie Louise
264
Positions of the different corps of the French armies in the middle of May
265
Movements of the Archduke Charles and position of his army
266
The Archduke at length advances towards Vienna
267
Retreat of the Archduke John from Italy
268
Battle of the Piave
270
Retreat of the Austrians from Italy into Hungary
271
Capture of the mountain forts of Carintbia and Styria by the French ib 28 Assault of the Col di Tarwis and oth er forts
272
Noble defence of Hermann and progress of Macdonald
273
Fall of Trieste Laybach and the whole frontier defences of Austria
275
Eugene advances to Vienna and joins Napoleon
276
Chances of the conflict under the walls of Vienna to either party ib 34 Napoleon resolves to attack the enemy and cross the Danube
277
Description of the islands of the Danube near Vienna and the different channels of the river
278
Napoleons preparations to effect the passage Failure at Nussdorf
279
His vigorous efforts to effect a passage at Lobau 38 Passage of the river
280
Operations of the Archduke on the Upper Danube at Lintz and Krems
281
The Archduke resolves to attack the French who had crossed
282
Austrian plan and order of attack
283
Position and dangers of the French army
284
Napoleon is surprised but resolves to give battle
285
Austrian plan of attack and forces on both sides
286
Desperate conflict at Aspern
287
Which is at length carried by the Austrians 47 Grand charge of the French cavalry in the centre
288
Bloody attack on Essling which proves unsuccessful
289
Feelings with which both parties passed the night on the field of battle
290
Heroic constancy of the French
291
Renewal of the action on the 22d Aspern and Essling are again obsti nately disputed
292
Aspern is finally carried by the Austrians
293
Napoleon makes a grand attack on the Austrian centre ib 54 Which is at first successful
294
Desperate resistance of the Austrian centre
295
Success of Hohenzollern and rupture of the bridges
296
The French retire towards the island of Lobau 58 Invincible defence of Essling by the Imperial Guard
297
Last attack of the Austrians and fall of Marshal Lannes
298
His death ib 61 Results of tbe battle and loss on both sides
299
Deplorable situation of the French army in the island of Lobau on the night of the 22d
301
Council of war in the island of Lobau In which it is resolved by Napoleon to maintain himself in that island
302
And the position there is accordingly maintained and Napoleon retires to Vienna
303
Reflections on the conduct of Napoleon in the battle of Aspern ib 66 His military errors and rashness on this occasion
304
Observations on the French method of attacking in column
305
Disadvantages of the attack in column when steadily resisted
306
Napoleons reasons for his rash conduct
307
Glorious character of the Austrian resistance at Aspern
308
Disastrous effects of the Archduke Johns disobedience of orders
309
Immense importance of central fortresses on the defence of nations
310
Infatuation of England in this respect
311
CHAPTER LVIII
312
Description of Tyrol
313
Opposite character of the northern and southern sides of the mountains to 4 Description of the great valleys and rivers of the Tyrol
314
Valley of the Adige and its rapid
315
Castles of the Tyrol
316
Its lakes
317
Superstitions of the country
318
Their religious feelings and impressions
319
Omens which were observed on the approach of the war to 11 Powerful religious feelings of the people _
320
Practical utility of the priests
321
Remarkable difference in this respect of ancient and modern times
322
Influence of religion in producing the Tyrolese character
324
National character of the Tyrolese compared with that of the Swiss
325
Love of freedom which animates the people Their character and man ners
326
Practical freedom which the people have always enjoyed under the Aus trian government
327
The peasants are all owners of their land Great influence of this on their character _
328
Astonishing industry of the people
329
Mechanical contrivances in the Tyrol ft 21 Discontent of the people under the Bavarian government
330
Preparations of Austria to take advantage of this discontent
331
Military description of the country
332
llofer his birth and descent
333
His character and disposition
334
Of Spechbacher
335
Of Joseph Haspinger the friar _
336
Of Martin Teimer and Baron Hormayer _
337
Brave preparations of the people for the contest
338
Insurrection in the Tyrol Its early and complete success
339
Successes in the Pusterthal
340
Defeat of the Bavarians by Hofer at the Sterzinger Moos
341
Capture of Innspruck by the peasants of the Upper Innthal
342
Striking incident which occurred on the capture of Innspruck
343
Arrival defeat and surrender of Bissons division from Sterzing
344
Capture of Hall by Spechbacher
345
Results of these successes Entire deliverance of the Tyrol
346
Menaces of Napoleon against Chastellar in the Tyrol
347
Actions in the Southern Tyrol which is evacuated by the French
348
Actions on the Salzberg frontier
350
Innspruck taken by the Bavarians 351
43
and the Tyrol
216
Desperate state of affairs in the Tyrol and firmness of the peasantry
352
Preparations for the battle of Innspruck
353
Battle of Innspruck and total defeat of the Bavarians
354
Bloody action of Hofer and Haspinger
355
Results of these victories in the entire deliverance of the Tyrol
357
The Tyrolese even make incursions into all the neighbouring country ib 50 Rise of the insurrection in the north of Germany
359
Enterprise and early success of Schill 300
361
His prospects there
362
Hisdefeat and death
363
Movement of the Duke of Brunswick
364
Operations in Poland under the Archduke Ferdinand
365
Object of those operations ib 59 Forces of the Grandduchy of Warsaw Success of Ferdinand and fall of Warsaw
366
Skilful measures of Poniatowsky to prolong the contest in the Grandduchy
367
Discovery of the secret leaning of the Russians towards Austria
368
Great distrust it excited in the mind of Napoleon 339
369
The exorbitant demands of Prussia cause it to fail
370
Operations in Italy and diversion from Sicily
371
Situation and prospects of Napoleon after the battle of Aspern Duke of Brunswick takes Dresden
373

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Page 184 - It is as well as it is. I had rather it should go out of the field with me;" and in that manner, so becoming to a soldier, Moore was borne from the fight.
Page 104 - I was nimuk-wallah, as we say in the East ; I have ate of the King's salt ; and therefore I consider it my duty to serve with zeal and promptitude when or wherever the King or his government may think proper to employ me.
Page 50 - We shall proceed upon the principle that any nation of Europe that starts up with a determination to oppose a power which, whether professing insidious peace or declaring open war, is the common enemy of all nations, whatever may be the existing political relations of that nation with Great Britain, becomes instantly our essential ally.
Page 30 - ... was carried, was regarded with awe, and obeyed without hesitation. Previous to this, we do not hear of its having been adopted in the Lowlands ; but on the present emergency, being fastened to the point of a spear, it was transmitted by the heralds and pursuivants throughout every part of the realm ; from town to town, from village to village, from hamlet to hamlet, the ensanguined symbol flew with...
Page 184 - the people of England will be satisfied ! I hope my country will do me justice ! ' These precious sentences were among the last he uttered : his sufferings were not long : he expired with the hand of Colonel Anderson pressed firmly in his own.
Page 2 - Napoleon, the firmness of Wellington, have been exerted on its plains ; and, like their great predecessors in the wars of Rome and Carthage, these two illustrious chiefs rolled the chariot of victory over its surface, and, missing each other, severally conquered every other opponent till their mutual renown filled the world, and Europe, in breathless suspense, awaited the issue of their conflict on another shore.
Page 104 - Pole and Burghersh have apprised me of the arrangements for the future command of this army; and the former has informed me of your kindness towards me, of which I have experienced so many instances, that I can never doubt it in any case. All that I can say upon that subject is, that whether I am to command the army or not, or am to quit it, I shall do my hest to insure its success...
Page 204 - ... nations so situated the delusive prospect of a peace between Great Britain and France could not fail to be peculiarly injurious. Their preparations might be relaxed by the vain hope of returning tranquillity; or their purpose shaken by the apprehension of being left to contend alone.
Page 38 - Europe,' says the Junta of Seville, 'will applaud our efforts and hasten to our assistance : Italy, Germany, and the whole North, which suffer under the despotism of the French nation, will eagerly avail themselves of the favourable opportunity, held out to them by Spain, to shake off the yoke and recover their liberty, their laws, their monarchs, and all they have been robbed of by that nation. France herself will hasten to erase the stain of infamy, which must cover the tools and instruments of...
Page 38 - France has never domineered over us, nor set her foot in our territory. We have many times mastered her, not by deceit, but by force of arms; we have made her kings prisoners, and we have made the nation tremble we are the same Spaniards, and France, and Europe, and the world shall see, that we are not less gallant, nor less brave, than the most glorious of our ancestors.

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