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Ferdinand de Lesseps
The First Concession
PLATE facing page
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accepted agreed agreement Aigle Alexandria already ambassador approval Arab arbitration asked beneﬁt Bitter Lakes Britain Britain and France Cairo canal company canal project canal shares channel company’s concession conﬁdence conﬁrmed Constantinople construction Consul-General corvée country’s declared desert Egypt Egyptian government Emperor Empress enterprise fact favour Ferdinand de Lesseps ﬁgure ﬁnances ﬁnancial ﬁnanciers ﬁnd ﬁndings ﬁre ﬁreworks ﬁrman ﬁrst ﬁve forces Foreign France French government fresh water canal Grand Vizier guests hand inﬂuence Ismail Ismailia Israel Israeli isthmus Khedive labour Lake Timsah land later letter London Lord Lord Palmerston Louis-Napoleon Majesty’s Government Mediterranean million francs Morny Napoleon Napoleon III Nasser night Nile November Nubar oﬂice oﬂicial once opening Ottoman empire Palmerston Paris Pasha passage Porte proﬁts Red Sea returned route royal Said’s satisﬁed scheme sent shareholders ships Sublime Porte Suez Canal Sultan Tewﬁk traﬂic Turkey Turkish vessels Viceroy Viceroy’s waterway Whitehall wrote