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A Countercyclical Reference Currency to Stabilize the
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al-Maqrizi Allah amount assets BAFIA bank money banking system binary economics borrowing capital cause central bank commodity cost create money currency union debt deposits depreciation developing countries Dinar and Dirham divine law dollar e-Dinar electronic dinar euro European example exchange rate system fiat currency fiat money foreign currency GD currency union gold and silver gold coin Gold dinar gold standard growth income increase inflation institutions interest rates International Islamic University investment Islamic banks Islamic Dinar Islamic economy Islamic Gold Dinar Islamic University Malaysia issue large country linked loans Malaysia measure of wealth medium of exchange micro-money monetary policy money creation money supply Mundell Muslim Muslim countries paper currency paper money payment physical dinar problems productive Prophet quantity real economy reliable measure riba Ringgit scholars sector seigniorage Shari'ah speculative stability Terra transactions ummah unit of account world currency