3D-Position Tracking and Control for All-Terrain Robots

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Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 25, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 108 pages
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Rough terrain robotics is a fast evolving field of research and a lot of effort is deployed towards enabling a greater level of autonomy for outdoor vehicles. This book demonstrates how the accuracy of 3D position tracking can be improved by considering rover locomotion in rough terrain as a holistic problem. Although the selection of appropriate sensors is crucial to accurately track the rover’s position, it is not the only aspect to consider. Indeed, the use of an unadapted locomotion concept severely affects the signal to noise ratio of the sensors, which leads to poor motion estimates. In this work, a mechanical structure allowing smooth motion across obstacles with limited wheel slip is used. In particular, it enables the use of odometry and inertial sensors to improve the position estimation in rough terrain. A method for computing 3D motion increments based on the wheel encoders and chassis state sensors is developed. Because it accounts for the kinematics of the rover, this method provides better results than the standard approach. To further improve the accuracy of the position tracking and the rover’s climbing performance, a controller minimizing wheel slip is developed. The algorithm runs online and can be adapted to any kind of passive wheeled rover. Finally, sensor fusion using 3D-Odometry, inertial sensors and visual motion estimation based on stereovision is presented. The experimental results demonstrate how each sensor contributes to increase the accuracy and robustness of the 3D position estimation.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 The Open Challenges of Rough Terrain Navigation
2
13 Research Context and Scope
3
14 Structure of the Book
4
The SOLERO Rover
6
22 Control Architecture
11
222 Software Architecture
17
23 Summary
19
Position Tracking in RoughTerrain
52
52 Uncertainties Propagation
56
522 Error Propagation
57
53 Sensor Fusion
58
531 Sensor Models
60
532 State Prediction Model
63
54 Experimental Results
65
542 Enhancement with VME
73

3DOdometry
21
311 Bogie Displacement
22
312 3D Displacement
25
313 Contact Angles Estimation
27
33 Summary
32
Control in RoughTerrain
33
41 Quasistatic Model of a Wheeled Rover
34
412 A 3D Static Model
36
421 Wheel Slip Model
37
422 Optimization Algorithm
38
423 Torque Optimization for SOLERO
41
43 Rover Motion
43
44 Experimental Results
45
442 Experiments
46
45 WheelGround Contact Angles
49
46 Summary
50
55 Summary
78
Conclusion
81
Kinematic and Quasistatic Model of SOLERO
83
A11 The Bogies
84
A12 The Main Body
85
A2 The Quasistatic Model of SOLERO
86
A21 Linear Dependence of the Wheel Torques
89
A22 Equal Torque Solution
90
Linearized Models
91
B2 Gyroscopes State Transition
92
The GaussMarkov Process
93
Visual Motion Estimation
96
References
99
Index
104
Copyright

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