Crisis Communications: Lessons from September 11

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A. Michael Noll
Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 - Political Science - 231 pages
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On September 11, 2001, AT&T's traffic was 40 percent greater than its previous busiest day. Wireless calls were made from the besieged airplanes and buildings, with the human voice having a calming influence. E-mail was used to overcome distance and time zones. And storytelling played an important role both in conveying information and in coping with the disaster. Building on such events and lessons, Crisis Communications features an international cast of top contributors exploring emergency communications during crisis. Together, they evaluate the use, performance, and effects of traditional mass media (radio, TV, print), newer media (Internet, email), conventional telecommunications (telephones, cell phones), and interpersonal communication in emergency situations. Applying what has been learned from the behavior of the mass media in past crises, the authors clearly show the central role of communications on September 11. They establish how people learned of the tragedy and how they responded; examine the effects of media globalization on terrorism; and, in many cases, give specific advice for the future.
 

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Contents

The Functions and Uses of Media during the September 11 Crisis and Its Aftermath
1
Diffusion of News of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks
17
Civic Actions after September 11 A Communication Infrastructure Perspective
31
Communication during the World Trade Center Disaster Causes of Failure Lessons Recommendations
45
Response Restoration and Recovery September 11 and New York Citys Digital Networks
55
The Social Dynamics of Wireless on September 11 Reconfiguring Access
69
The Telephone as a Medium of Faith Hope Terror and Redemption America September 11
83
A Content Analysis of American Network Newscasts before 911
99
The Internet as a News Medium for the Crisis News of Terrorist Attacks in the United States
133
The Internet and the Demand for News Macro and Microevidence
149
History and September 11 A Comparison of Online and Network TV Discourses
167
From Disaster Marathon to Media Event Live Televisions Performance on September 11 2001 and September 11 2002
185
Globalization Isnt New and Antiglobalization Isnt Either September 11 and the History of Nations
199
Is There a bin Laden in the Audience? Considering the Events of September 11 as a Possible Boomerang Effect of the Globalization of US Mass Com...
205
The Bell Rang and We Answered
213
Index
221

Somethings Happened Fictional Media as a Recovery Mechanism
113
September 11 in Germany and the United States Reporting Reception and Interpretation
125
About the Contributors
225
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About the author (2003)

A. Michael Noll is a professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California. He is also affiliated with the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information at Columbia University's Business School and the Media Center at New York Law School.

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