AIDS in Africa

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 31, 2002 - Medical - 724 pages
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The way we deal with AIDS in Africa will All of them take account of the local cultural determine Africa’s future. The devastation context. But they all have something else in wrought by HIV/AIDS on the continent is so common; they stem from a political will to acute that it has become one of the main fight AIDS, and a recognition that facing up obstacles to development itself. AIDS to the problem is the first step towards c- threatens to unravel whole societies, com- quering it. I am convinced that, given that munities, and economies. In this way, AIDS will, every society can do the same. is not only taking away Africa’s present—it We have seen a growing understanding is taking away Africa’s future. of the inextricable link between prevention This crisis requires an unprecedented and treatment, and a conviction that tre- response. It requires communities, nations, ment can work even in the poorest societies. and regions, the public and the private sector, We have seen AIDS drugs become more international organizations and nongovern- available and affordable in poor countries, mental groups to come together in concerted, and scientific progress promises simplified coordinated action. Only when all these treatment regimes. Above all, we have seen a forces join in a common effort will we be able growing understanding that the key is poli- to expand our fight against the epidemic to cal commitment to providing treatment, decrease risk, vulnerability, and impact. All backed up by community involvement.
 

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Contents

The Etiology of AIDS
1
The Molecular Virology of HIV1
14
Immunopathogenesis of AIDS
34
Effect of Genetic Variation on HIV Transmission and Progression to AIDS
52
Biology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 HIV2
74
Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses and the Origin of HIVs
104
Serodiagnosis of HIV Infection
121
Molecular Diagnosis of HIV Infection
138
Challenges and Opportunities for Nurses
405
HomeBased Care
411
Nutrition and HIV Infection
419
Access to HIV and AIDS Care
436
Diagnosis of Pediatric HIV Infection
458
Treatment of HIV in Children Using Antiretroviral Drugs
469
Pediatric Opportunistic Infections
480
Male Condoms and Circumcision
498

Monitoring HIV1 Subtype Distribution
158
Monitoring Viral Load
173
Monitoring Immune Function
185
EPIDEMIOLOGY
200
Transmission of HIV
217
Role of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in HIVTransmission
231
MothertoChild Transmission of HIV
251
HIV1 Subtypes and Recombinants
263
Current Estimates and Projections for the Epidemic
281
CLINICAL SPECTRUM AND TREATMENT
297
Antiretroviral Therapy in ResourceLimited Settings
322
HIV1 Drug Resistance
345
Opportunistic Infections
355
Tuberculosis
373
HIV Infection and Cancer
386
Female Condoms and Microbicides
506
Goals and Means
514
Voluntary Counseling and Testing
527
Prevention of Perinatal Transmission of HIV
539
Postexposure Prophylaxis for Occupational
571
The Need for a Vaccine
584
Design and Development
594
HIV1 Vaccine Testing Trial Design and Ethics
612
Regional Variations in the African Epidemics
631
Human Rights and HIVAIDS
641
Gender and HIVAIDS
654
The Orphan Crisis
664
The Economics of AIDS in Africa
676
International Cooperation and Mobilization
695
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About the author (2002)

Max Essex is Lasker Professor of Health Sciences at Harvard University and has been involved in AIDS research from the earliest days of the U.S. epidemic in 1982.