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Defense Technical Information Center, 1958 - 13 pages
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In general, two methods of loading explosives into ammunition are in use, first, casting (referred to as melt-loading) and secondly pressing, or consolidation by means of pneumatic or hydraulic presses. The latter is used for loading detonators, and making small pellets for boosters, and also for loading shell with explosives which have melting temperatures too high to make melt-loading feasible. The former method, casting, is usually the more economical of the two, and is used as universally as possible. The bulk of of this report deals with melt-loading. All standard present day melt-loaded explosives melt as a temperature of about 176F (80C). However, the optimum casting or loading temperature for most of these explosives ranges from about 1C to 10C above the melting temperature. All castable explosives shrink upon changing from the liquid to the solid state. Therefore, whenever possible, provision must be made to supply a reservoir or riser of molten explosive above the loading opening in the item. This riser will then supply additional molten explosive to the main charge in the item to fill up any shrinkage cavitation which may have occurred during the initial charge solidification. (Author).

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