An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 14, 2000 - Science - 286 pages
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From reviews of the first edition:
"well organized . . . Recommended as an introductory text for undergraduates"   -- AAAS Science Books and Films

"well written and illustrated"   -- Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 Microenvironments
3
13 Mass and Momentum Transport
4
15 Continuity in the Biosphere
5
16 Models Heterogeneity and Scale
7
17 Applications
9
References
13
Temperature
15
96 The Water Balance
144
Radiation Basics
147
101 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
148
102 Blackbody Radiation
149
104 The Cosine Law
156
105 Attenuation of Radiation
157
106 Spectral Distribution of Blackbody Radiation
159
107 Spectral Distribution of Solar and Thermal Radiation
160

22 Random Temperature Variation
18
23 Modeling Vertical Variation in Air Temperature
20
24 Modeling Temporal Variation in Air Temperature
23
26 Temperature and Biological Development
26
27 Thermal Time
28
28 Calculating Thermal Time from Weather Data
30
29 Temperature Extremes and the Computation of Thermal Time
32
211 Thermal Time in Relation To Other Environmental Variables
33
References
34
Problems
35
Water Vapor and Other Gases
37
31 Specifying Gas Concentration
38
Saturation Conditions
40
33 Condition of Partial Saturation
42
34 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Water Vapor
47
35 Estimating the Vapor Concentration in Air
49
References
50
Liquid Water in Organisms and their Environment
53
42 Water Potentials in Organisms and their Surroundings
58
References
61
Wind
63
51 Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence
64
52 Wind as a Vector
65
53 Modeling the Variation in Wind Speed
66
54 Finding the Zero Plane Displacement and the Roughness Length
68
55 Wind Within Crop Canopies
72
References
74
Problems
75
Heat and Mass Transport
77
61 Molar Fluxes
78
62 Integration of the Transport Equations
79
64 Resistors and Conductors in Series
80
65 Resistors in Parallel
81
Problems
85
Conductances for Heat and Mass Transfer
87
72 Molecular Diffusivities
88
73 Diffusive Conductance of the Integument
90
74 Turbulent Transport
93
75 Fetch and Buoyancy
96
76 Conductance of the Atmospheric Surface Layer
97
77 Conductances for Heat and Mass Transfer in Laminar Forced Convection
99
78 Cylinders Spheres and Animal Shapes
102
79 Conductances in Free Convection
103
710 Combined Forced and Free Convection
105
712 Determining the Characteristic Dimension of an Object
106
713 Free Stream Turbulence
108
References
110
Heat Flow in the Soil
113
Volumetric Heat Capacity
117
Thermal Conductivity
119
84 Thermal Diffusivity and Admittance of Soils
123
85 Heat Transfer from Animals to a Substrate
126
References
128
Water Flow in Soil
129
92 Infiltration of Water into Soil
131
93 Redistribution of Water in Soil
133
94 Evaporation from the Soil Surface
136
95 Transpiration and Plant Water Uptake
139
108 Radiant Emittance
162
References
165
Radiation Fluxes in Natural Environments
167
111 Sun Angles and Daylength
168
112 Estimating Direct and Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance
171
113 Solar Radiation under Clouds
173
114 Radiation Balance
175
115 Absorptivities for Thermal and Solar Radiation
176
116 View Factors
178
References
183
Problems
184
Animals and their Environment
185
122 Metabolism
189
123 Latent Heat Exchange
190
124 Conduction of Heat in Animal Coats and Tissue
194
125 Qualitative Analysis of Animal Thermal Response
197
126 Operative Temperature
198
127 Applications of the Energy Budget Equation
200
128 The Transient State
201
129 Complexities of Animal Energetics
202
1210 Animals and Water
204
References
205
Problems
206
Humans and their Environment
209
132 Survival in Cold Environments
211
133 Wind Chill and Standard Operative Temperature
213
134 Survival in Hot Environments
215
135 The Humid Operative Temperature
219
136 Comfort
220
References
222
Plants and Plant Communities
223
141 Leaf Temperature
224
142 Aerodynamic Temperature of Plant Canopies
229
143 Radiometric Temperature of Plant Canopies
230
144 Transpiration and the Leaf Energy Budget
231
145 Canopy Transpiration
233
146 Photosynthesis
235
148 Biochemical Models for Assimilation
239
149 Control of Stomatal Conductance
241
1410 Optimum Leaf Form
244
References
245
Problems
246
The Light Environment of Plant Canopies
247
152 Detailed Models of Light Interception by Canopies
250
153 Transmission of Diffuse Radiation
254
154 Light Scattering in Canopies
255
156 Transmission of Radiation by Sparse CanopiesSoil Reflectance Effects
257
157 Daily Integration
258
159 Calculating Canopy Assimilation from Leaf Assimilation
259
1510 Remote Sensing of Canopy Cover and IPAR
264
1511 Remote Sensing and Canopy Temperature
271
1512 Canopy Reflectivity Emissivity versus Leaf Reflectivity Emissivity
273
1514 Indirect Sensing of Canopy Architecture
275
References
276
Problems
277
Appendix
279
Index
283
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