A Century of Excellence in Measurements, Standards, and Technology

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CRC Press, Oct 30, 2001 - Science - 400 pages
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Established by Congress in 1901, the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), has a long and distinguished history as the custodian and disseminator of the United States' standards of physical measurement. Having reached its centennial anniversary, the NBS/NIST reflects on and celebrates its first century with this book describing some of its seminal contributions to science and technology. Within these pages are 102 vignettes that describe some of the Institute's classic publications. Each vignette relates the context in which the publication appeared, its impact on science, technology, and the general public, and brief details about the lives and work of the authors.

The groundbreaking works depicted include:

  • A breakthrough paper on laser-cooling of atoms below the Doppler limit, which led to the award of the 1997 Nobel Prize for Physics to William D. Phillips
  • The official report on the development of the radio proximity fuse, one of the most important new weapons of World War II
  • The 1932 paper reporting the discovery of deuterium in experiments that led to Harold Urey's1934 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
  • A review of the development of the SEAC, the first digital computer to employ stored programs and the first to process images in digital form
  • The first paper demonstrating that parity is not conserved in nuclear physics, a result that shattered a fundamental concept of theoretical physics and led to a Nobel Prize for T. D. Lee and C. Y. Yang
  • "Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Atomic Vapor," a 1995 paper that has already opened vast new areas of research
  • A landmark contribution to the field of protein crystallography by Wlodawer and coworkers on the use of joint x-ray and neutron diffraction to determine the structure of proteins
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    Contents

    Introduction
    1
    Determination of the Constants of Total Radiation From a Black Body
    7
    Precipitation Hardening of Metal Alloys
    14
    Recommended Minimum Requirements for Small Dwelling Construction
    22
    Test of the Severity of Building Fires
    28
    Development of the VisualType Airway RadioBeacon System
    38
    Air Flow and Turbulence in Boundary Layers
    46
    Absolute Pressure Calibrations of Microphones
    53
    Paths Trees and Flowers
    140
    Resonance Tunneling of Field Emitted Electrons Through Adsorbates on Metal Surfaces
    155
    Code for Information InterchangeASCII
    172
    Determination of Reduced Cells in Crystallography
    188
    SpinPolarized Electrons
    203
    ElectronStimulated Desorption
    219
    Publications Taking Us Toward a Metric America
    234
    Data Encryption Standard
    250

    Radio Proximity Fuzes
    59
    Manufacture of Paper for War Maps and Other Applications
    66
    Atomic Energy Levels and Other Spectroscopic Data
    73
    19511960
    81
    Thermal Converters as ACDC Transfer Standards for Current and Voltage Measurements
    90
    Applied Inorganic Analysis
    97
    Polymer Crystallization With Folded Chains
    104
    Reversal of the Parity Conservation Law in Nuclear Physics
    111
    Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media
    120
    Stress Relaxation With Finite Strain
    126
    Experimental Statistics
    132
    Computer Program for Heating and Cooling Loads in Buildings
    266
    Estimation of Rate of Heat Release by Means of Oxygen Consumption Measurements
    280
    Materials at Low Temperatures
    294
    Dental Research at the National Bureau of Standards
    309
    The Automated Manufacturing Research Facility
    322
    Submicrometer Linewidth Metrology
    328
    Thermal and Oxidative Degradation of Polymers
    344
    Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
    357
    Certification of 10 u m Diameter Polystyrene Spheres Space Beads
    371
    Copyright

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