A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau: Traditional Stl'atl'imx Resource Use

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Brian Hayden
UBC Press, Sep 1, 1992 - Nature - 584 pages
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Early hunter/gatherer societies have traditionally been considered basically egalitarian in nature. This assumption, however, has been challenged by contemporary archaeological and anthropological research, which has demonstrated that many of these societies had complex social, economic, and political structures. This volume considers two British Columbia Native communities -- the Lillooet and Shuswap communities of Fountain and Pavilion - and traces their development into complex societies. The authors explore the relation between resource characteristics and hunter/gatherer adaptations and examine the use of fish, animal, and plant species, documenting their availability and the techniques used in their gathering, processing, and storing. The book also shows how cultural practices, such as raiding, potlatching, and stewardship of resources, can be explained from a cultural ecological point of view. An important contribution to the study of hunting and gathering cultures in the Northwest, this book is the most detailed examination of the subsistence base of a particular hunting and gathering group to date. Its exploration of the reasons why complex hunting and gathering societies emerge, as well as the ecological relationships between cultures and resources, will make an important contribution to the study of cultural ecology and contemporary archaeology.
 

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Contents

Ecology and Culture
3
Chapter
8
Chapter 1
16
Environmental Units
47
Environmental summary according to environmental
54
Harvesting time of major traditional food plants
63
Mammal species traditionally utilized
80
Availability of fish species in the Fraser River
90
Traditional and Contemporary Land and Resource Use
355
Fishing sites along the Fraser River from Gibbs Creek
363
Sketch of salmon fishing sites above Skwish Creek
371
Distance from water to cultural depressions in three
373
Prehistoric village sites salmon fishing sites mountain
382
Chapter 9
399
Nineteenthcentury village sites salmon fishing sites
401
Plant Resources of the Stldtlimx Fraser River Lillooet
405

A Reconstruction of Prehistoric Land Use in the Mid
99
Monthly calendar
102
Chapter 4
108
Salmon Availability Technology and Cultural Adaptation
177
Model of salmon availability in thousands of fish
186
Food resources available to Mainland Halkomelem
196
A Percentage distribution of chinook in Fraser system
210
Fraser Lillooet Salmon Fishing
219
Access to Lillooet salmon by environmental differ
250
Stldtlimx Fraser River Lillooet Fishing
266
Salmon yields at specific fishing sites near Lillooet
302
Total yearly sockeye catches in the Lillooet area from
317
Chapter 8
434
the study area
441
Distribution of cowparsnip Heradeum lanatum in
455
The Cultural Ecology of Hunting and Potlatches among
470
Model fluctuations in salmon available to the Fraser
481
Conflict and Salmon on the Interior Plateau of British
506
Location Lillooet Thompson and Shuswap tribal
507
Location of tribal divisions and subdivisions showing
520
Ecology and Complex HunterGatherers
525
INDEX
565
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About the author (1992)

Brian Hayden is a professor in the Department of Archaeology at Simon Fraser University.

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