A Computational Phonology of Russian

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Universal-Publishers, 2003 - Education - 424 pages
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This dissertation provides a coherent, synchronic, broad-coverage, generative phonology of Russian. I test the grammar empirically in a number of ways to determine its goodness of fit to Russian. In taking this approach, I aim to avoid making untested (or even incoherent) generalizations based on only a handful of examples. In most cases, the tests show that there are exceptions to the theory, but at least we know what the exceptions are, a baseline is set against which future theories can be measured, and in most cases the percentage of exceptional cases is reduced to below 5%. The principal theoretical outcomes of the work are as follows. First, I show that all of the phonological or morphophonological processes reviewed can be described by a grammar no more powerful than context-free. Secondly, I exploit probabilistic constraints in the syllable structure grammar to explain why constraints on word-marginal onsets and codas are weaker than on word-internal onsets and codas. I argue that the features []/- initial] and []/- final], and extraprosodicity, are unnecessary for this purpose.
 

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Contents

35 Tests of the wordformation grammar
214
351 Test of coverage of the wordformation grammar
215
352 Test of the grammars treatment of vowelzero alternations
218
36 Conclusion
222
Stress assignment three existing theories
224
412 Aims of this chapter
232
42 Three theories of stress assignment
233
422 Melvold 1989
237

22 The syllable in phonological theory
34
221 Sonority and syllable structure
37
222 Morpheme structure constraints or syllable structure constraints?
40
223 Syllable structure assignment
43
2231 Kahns 1976 syllable structure assignment rules
45
2232 Its 1986 method of syllable structure assignment
49
2233 Syllable structure assignment in Optimality Theory
51
2234 Phrasestructure analysis of syllable structure
54
conclusions
56
23 A linear grammar of Russian syllable structure
58
231 The phonological inventory of Russian
59
2312 The classification system
68
232 The syllable structure rules
72
24 A heuristic for deciding between multiple syllabifications
95
25 Extensions to the grammar
99
251 Further phonological features
102
252 Four phonological processes in Russian
105
2522 Reduction of unstressed vowels
114
2523 Wordfinal devoicing
120
2524 Voicing assimilation
127
253 A test of the extensions to the grammar
141
26 Summary
146
Morphological structure
149
311 Generative approaches to wordformation
152
312 Morphology and contextfree grammar
158
32 A linear grammar of Russian wordformation
161
controversial issues
164
3212 The classification system
165
322 The wordformation rules
170
3221 Words with no internal structure
171
3222 Nouns
172
3223 Verbs
178
3224 Prefixation
180
33 Vowelzero alternations in contextfree grammar
185
34 A heuristic for deciding between multiple morphological analyses
202
341 Assigning costs to competing analyses
205
342 Should the cost mechanism be based on hapax legomena?
209
423 Zaliznjak 1985
244
43 Derivational theories and underdeterminacy
248
431 Computing underlying accentuations by brute force
251
432 Backwards phonology and the Accent Learning Algorithm
252
4321 A concise encoding of solutions
257
4322 Formalization of the Accent Learning Algorithm
259
4323 A smallscale demonstration of the ALA on a nonproblem combination
261
4324 Problem words
271
4325 Modifications to the ALA to allow for different theories
274
4326 Conclusions from the ALA
278
433 Unique specification of the morpheme inventory by defaults
283
44 Tests to ascertain the coverage of the three theories
291
441 Test of Halles theory on nonderived nouns
292
442 Test of Halles theory on nonderived and derived nouns
293
443 Test of Melvolds theory on nonderived and derived nouns
294
444 Test of Melvolds theory on nouns nonreflexive verbs and adjectives
295
445 Test of Zaliznjaks theory on nominative singular derived nouns
296
446 Test of Melvolds theory on nominative singular derived nouns
297
447 Analysis of errors in Melvolds and Zaliznjaks theories
298
45 Summary
307
Stress assignment a new analysis
309
52 Contextfree phonology and stress in Russian
311
521 Encoding which morpheme determines stress
312
522 Polysyllabic morphemes
318
523 Postaccentuation
319
524 Jer stress retraction
325
525 Plural stress retraction
329
526 Dominant unaccented morphemes
333
527 Concluding comments about the contextfree phonology
336
53 A test of the entire grammar
338
54 Conclusions
343
Russian syllable structure grammar
346
Russian wordformation grammar
355
Morphological inventory
358
The computational phonology as a Prolog Definite Clause Grammar
392
References
413
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Page 11 - Halle (1968) (to many the canonical work of generative phonology) illustrates this thinking: ...we are not, in this work, concerned exclusively or even primarily with the facts of English as such. We are interested in these facts for the light they shed on linguistic theory (on what, in an earlier period, would have been called "universal grammar") and for what they suggest about the nature of mental processes in general...
Page 17 - Our grammar of English is not a theory of how speakers think up things to say and put them into words. Our general linguistic theory is not a theory of how a child abstracts from the surrounding hubbub of linguistic and non-linguistic noises enough evidence to gain a mental grasp of the structure of a natural language.
Page 35 - The ups and downs of syllabication play an important part in the phonetic structure of all languages.
Page 17 - Thus we feel it is possible, and arguably proper, for a linguist (qua linguist) to ignore matters of psychology.
Page 46 - Rule I: With each [+syllabic] segment of the input string associate one syllable.

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