J. R. Hale was formerly Professor of Italian History at University College London. He had been a Fellow and Tutor in Modern History at Jesus College, Oxford; the founding Professor of History at the University of Warwick; a visiting fellow at the Harvard Centre for Renaissance Studies, I Tatti, Florence; and Professor of Italian at University College London. He was a fellow of the British Academy, a former chairman of the Trustees of the National Gallery and was knighted for "services to learning and the arts" in 1984. His books include "England and the Italian Renaissance" (1954), "Machiavelli and Renaissance" Italy (1961), "Renaissance Exploration" (1968), "Renaissance War Studies" (1983), "War and Society in Renaissance Europe 1450-1620" (1985) and "The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance" (1993). Professor Hale died in 1999.