A Critical Comparison of Internationalisation Theories: Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning Vs. Uppsala School
GRIN Verlag, 2009 - 92 pages
Seminar paper from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Miscellaneous, grade: 2,0, University of Applied Sciences Saarbrucken, language: English, abstract: 1 Introduction Centuries ago it was out of question for companies to operate worldwide. The costs to act global had been too high as well as the existent lack of knowledge about other countries, cultures, languages, foreign demands etc. But a few decades ago, companies started to run for globalisation which is seen as a process of internationalisation. Globalisation can be defined as a global network of economic processes. Today companies face less risk when engaging in international activities than ever before. Nowadays markets are easy accessible and the society faces a similar development concerning living standards all over the world. Companies notice the existing possibilities when passing national borders. Today internationalisation is an option for big companies as well as for SMEs. Internationalisation can be defined more exactly as the name "international" predicts as an international network between companies of different nations which means in most cases industrialised nations. Today almost all products and services are internationalised and available on the world market. It is indispensable that enterprises conduct business in host countries to remain competitive. Most companies are aware of internationalisation processes. Multinational companies are enterprises which operate in two or more countries. Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung (1) states that in 1980, approximately 17.000 MNEs existed. Further Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung (1) explains that already in the year 2000, 63.000 MNEs existed and in 2004 existed even 70.000 MNEs. According to Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung (1) belong MNE companies to the countries where their headquarter is based in. Further Bundeszentrale fur politische Bildung (1) estimates that approximately 9.000 MNEs belong to Germany and ap
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accessed According to Johanson According to Perlitz aren´t assume behaviour Bundeszentrale für politische can´t Change Aspects commitment decisions concept of psychic concerning critical comparison culture current activities decision makers defines definition doesn´t don´t dynamic Eclectic Paradigm employees enter foreign markets establishment chain example export activities fact factor knowledge firms internationalisation process foreign country foreign direct investment franchising geographical distance global Helsinki school approach Holtbrügge 2003 Homo oeconomicus important industries influence international contracts international production internationalisation advantages internationalisation approach Internationalisation theories John H location advantages Macharzina 2005 market characteristics market commitment market entry strategies market knowledge means Model of Internationalisation multinational enterprise neighbour markets operate on foreign ownership advantages Paradigm of Dunning paradigm of international Patterns of Internationalisation politische Bildung production site abroad Psychic Distance Chain Schlegelmilch 2000 Schmid speaks step Stöttinger uncertainty avoidance Uppsala Internationalisation-model Uppsala-model of Internationalisation Vahlne variables Welge Wheelen Whitelock 2002 Wiedersheim-Paul 1975