A Critique of Nicotine Addiction

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 2000 - Medical - 244 pages
Nicotine is almost universally believed to be the major factor that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. Authorities such as the Surgeon General of the USA and the Royal College of Physicians in the UK have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This book is a critique of the nicotine addiction hypothesis, based on a critical review of the research literature that purports to prove that nicotine is as addictive drug. The review is based on a re-examination of more than 700 articles and books on this subject, including animal and human experimental studies, effects of `nicotine replacement therapies', and many other relevant sources. This review concludes that on present evidence, there is every reason to reject the generally accepted theory that nicotine has a major role in cigarette smoking. A critical examination of the criteria for drug addiction demonstrates that none of these criteria is met by nicotine, and that it is much more likely that nicotine in fact limits rather than facilitates smoking.
 

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Contents

SMOKING DEFINED AS AN ADDICTION
1
SELFSTIMULATION AND NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT
6
ANOTE ON NICOTINE AND DOPAMINE
7
REINFORCING PROPERTIES OF NICOTINE IN HUMANS
9
ADDICTION COMPULSION AND HABIT
13
4
35
NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT IN ANIMALS
45
THE REINFORCING PROPERTIES OF NICOTINE
55
3 4 5 6 7 8 COMPLIANCE WITH LEGAL RESTRICTIONS
135
MEASURING THE DIFFICULTY OF ABSTINENCE
137
COMPLETE CESSATION IN PROSPECTIVE STUDIES SINGLETRIAL VS MULTITRIAL CESSATION RATES
142
THE SIMILARITY OF SMOKING AND HEROIN ABSTlNENCE RATES OVEREATING ANOTHER IRRESISTIBLE URGE
145
THE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION FOR QUITTING
147
CONCLUSION
150
NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPIES
151
THE LIMITED EFFICACY OF NICOTINE REPLACEMENT DEVICES
152

NICOTINE AND INTRACRANIAL SELF
77
COMPARED TOICSS
85
TOLERANCE TO AND PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE ON NICOTINE AS A PRIMARY REINFORCER IN HUMANS
92
EVIDENCE FOR THE REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
95
NICOTINE DELIVERY KINETICS AND ABUSE LIABILITY
101
STUDIES OF NICOTINE NASAL SPRAY
105
SENSORY REWARDS IN SMOKING
107
CONCLUSION
112
DEPENDENCE
115
TOLERANCE TO THE EUPHORIC EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
117
PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE ON HEROIN
119
THE NICOTINE ABSTINENCE SYNDROME IN RATS
121
NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL IN HUMANS
123
CONCLUSION
125
THE DIFFICULTY OF CURTAILING THE SMOKING HABIT
132
METHADONE TREATMENT FOR OPIATE ADDICTION
154
METHADONE MAINTENANCE VS NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
155
THE NICOTINE COMPENSATION HYPOTHESIS
159
13
173
REFERENCES
187
14
188
51
191
90
193
107
194
117
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130
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