A Curriculum Guide for Public-Safety and Emergency-Response Workers: Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus

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DIANE Publishing, 1994 - 185 pages
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Designed to meet the training and education needs of public safety workers and emergency medical workers who may be exposed on the job to HIV and HBV. Based on federal guidelines for preventing occupational transmission, or spread, of HIV and HBV among worker groups. Covers: how HIV and HBV are spread, personal prevention practices, universal precautions, protective equipment, and much more. Illustrations.

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Page 5-22 - Administrator after consultation with and written response to any comments provided by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the director of the National Institutes of Health.
Page 25 - Of these, 708 (80%) had percutaneous exposures to blood, and 175 (20%) had a mucous membrane or an open wound contaminated by blood or body fluid. Of 396 healthcare workers, each of whom had only a convalescent-phase serum sample obtained and tested *90 days postexposure, one — for whom heterosexual transmission could not be ruled out — was seropositive for HIV antibody.
Page 5-24 - July 10, 1987, a total of 1,875 (5.8%) of 32,395 adults with AIDS, who had been reported to the CDC national surveillance system and for whom occupational information was available, reported being employed in a health-care or clinical laboratory setting. In comparison, 6.8 million persons — representing 5.6% of the US labor force — were employed in health services.
Page 28 - ... 1. All specimens of blood and body fluids should be put in a well-constructed container with a secure lid to prevent leaking during transport. Care should be taken when collecting each specimen to avoid contaminating the outside of the container and of the laboratory form accompanying the specimen. 2. All persons processing blood and body-fluid specimens (eg, removing tops from vacuum tubes) shoud wear gloves.
Page 8 - Contaminated materials used in laboratory tests should be decontaminated before reprocessing or be placed in bags and disposed of in accordance with institutional policies for disposal of infective waste (24).
Page 26 - These exposed workers included 103 with needlestick injuries and 229 with mucous-membrane exposures; none had seroconverted. A similar study at the University of California of 129 health-care workers with documented needlestick injuries or mucous-membrane exposures to blood or other body fluids from patients with HIV infection has not identified any seroconversions (77).
Page 3 - Disposable gloves should be a standard component of emergency response equipment, and should be donned by all personnel prior to initiating any emergency patient care tasks involving exposure to blood or other body fluids to which universal precautions apply.
Page 5-32 - All health-care workers should take precautions to prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments or devices during procedures; when cleaning used instruments; during disposal of used needles; and when handling sharp instruments after procedures. To prevent needlestick injuries, needles should not be recapped, purposely bent orbroken by hand, removed from disposable syringes, or otherwise manipulated by hand.
Page 25 - The recommendations contained in this document have been developed for use in health-care settings and emphasize the need to treat blood and other body fluids from all patients as potentially infective. These same prudent precautions also should be taken in other settings in which persons may be exposed to blood or other body fluids. Definition of Health-Care Workers...
Page 2 - Infective waste, in general, should either be incinerated or should be autoclaved before disposal in a sanitary landfill. Bulk blood, suctioned fluids, excretions, and secretions may be carefully poured down a drain connected to a sanitary sewer. Sanitary sewers may also be used to dispose of other infectious wastes capable of being ground and flushed into the sewer.

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