A Future of Lousy Jobs?: The Changing Structure of U.S. Wages
Politicians, journalists, and the public have expressed rising concern about the decline - or percieved decline - in middle-class jobs. The U.S. work force is viewed as increasingly divided between a prosperous minority that enjoys ever-rising wages and a less affluent majority that struggles harder each year to make ends meet. To determine whether and why this view of the job market is accurate, labor market economists anaylze trends in the distribution of jobs and wages over the past two decades and attempt to forecast the future course of American earnings inequality. McKinley L. Blackburn, David E. Bloom, and Richard B. Freeman assess the reasons behind the deterioration of earnings and job opportunities among less skilled men. They consider the impact of changes in industrial structure, declines in unionization, and trends in the level and quality of schooling for men who have limited skills and education. Gary Burtless examines the effect of the business cycle, within and across different regions of the United States, on earnings inequality and analyzes the effects of demographic change on inequality over the past twenty years. Rebecca M. Blank studies the rise of part-time employment and its impact on wages, fringe benefits, and the quality of jobs. Linda Dachter Loury focuses on the effect of the baby boom and baby bust on demand for schooling among new labor market entrants. If young entrants are discouraged from seeking college training by the high cost or low payoff of schooling, the long-term impact will be a gradual decline in the skills of the U.S. work force. Robert Mofitt analyzes the effect of welfare state programs on the growth of low-wage jobs, and the extent towhich the welfare reforms of the eighties have affected low-income workers.
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Introduction and Summary
Blackburn David E Bloom and Richard B Freeman
The Declining Economic Position of Less Skilled
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AFDC aged analysis annual earnings attend college baby boom business cycle cohort size college graduates college-educated columns correlation Current Population Survey cyclical decline demographic distribution of earnings distributional statistics dummy variable earners earnings differentials earnings distribution earnings inequality economic effect of cohort effect of part-time estimates explain factors female food stamps fringe benefits full-time workers Gini coefficient groups growth high school dropouts hourly wage hypothesis included income individuals industries labor force labor market labor supply less skilled workers log points logarithm Lorenz curve male earnings male workers marital status measure median medicaid Moffitt occupations overall paper part-time and full-time part-time jobs part-time workers pension percentile population quintile ratio received regression relative earnings relative supply reported rise sample shifts shown in table significant standard error statistics Theil index time-series trend unem unemployment rate union var(e variance wage gap wage rates white male women
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Half A Job: Bad and Good Part-Time Jobs in a Changing Labor Market
Limited preview - 1996