A Grammar of the Kolokuma Dialect of Ịjọ
First published in 1968, this monograph is a descriptive grammar of a dialect of Ịjọor (Ijaw), a language spoken in the Niger Delta area of Southern Nigeria. The dialect described, Kolokuma, is a central one, quite widely understood. The most interesting features of the language, on which the monograph concentrates, are its syntax and its tonal system. An attempt is made to treat them according to a generative-transformational theory of language. The tonal system is of an unusual type whereby the tones that words bear in isolation are considerably modified according to the syntactic context the word appears in. Syntax and tones are therefore bound closely together, and the grammar is written so as to give rules first for the syntactic sequences of words and then for the tone patterns that will occur on these sequences.
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VERB PHRASE TRANSFORMATIONS
TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE NOUN PHRASE
adverbial aspect markers béi bél bo-ml breath group canoe child clan combinations comma consists consonant constituent sentence contrast deﬁnite deleted dialects emphasizer enclitics English example ﬁnish ﬁrst ﬁrst person ﬁsh ﬁve ﬂy forms free variation grammar high tone hyphen juncture ideophones idiolects Igbo Ijo language indeﬁnite intonation intransitive Kolokuma language loanwords locative long pronoun long vowels low tones matrix sentence mlel morphemes morphophonemic morphophonemic rules nasalization Nembe Niger-Congo languages non-high noun phrase object occurs Okrika open vowel paddle phoneme phonological plosive preceding predicate pronoun pronoun subjects replaced reported speech sequence short pronoun Similarly song sing speakers speciﬁc verb stpr suffix swim syllable tense tobou tonal tone class tone group tone pattern tone phrases town transformation transformational grammar transitive verbs unit begins verb of motion Vmove vowel harmony Vsen