A Guide to Impact Fees and Housing Affordability
Island Press, Apr 30, 2008 - Architecture - 320 pages
Impact fees are one-time charges that are applied to new residential developments by local governments that are seeking funds to pay for the construction or expansion of public facilities, such as water and sewer systems, schools, libraries, and parks and recreation facilities. In the face of taxpayer revolts against increases in property taxes, impact fees are used increasingly by local governments throughout the U.S. to finance construction or improvement of their infrastructure. Recent estimates suggest that 60 percent of all American cities with over 25,000 residents use some form of impact fees. In California, it is estimated that 90 percent of such cities impose impact fees.
For more than thirty years, impact fees have been calculated based on proportionate share of the cost of the infrastructure improvements that are to be funded by the fees. However, neither laws nor courts have ensured that fees charged to new homes are themselves proportionate. For example, the impact fee may be the same for every home in a new development, even when homes vary widely in size and selling price. Data show, however, that smaller and less costly homes have fewer people living in them and thus less impact on facilities than larger homes. This use of a flat impact fee for all residential units disproportionately affects lower-income residents.
The purpose of this guidebook is to help practitioners design impact fees that are equitable. It demonstrates exactly how a fair impact fee program can be designed and implemented. In addition, it includes information on the history of impact fees, discusses alternatives to impact fees, and summarizes state legislation that can infl uence the design of local fee programs. Case studies provide useful illustrations of successful programs.
This book should be the first place that planning professionals, public officials, land use lawyers, developers, homebuilders, and citizen activists turn for help in crafting (or recrafting) proportionate-share impact fee programs.
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Impact FeesPast Present and Future
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1,000 square feet acres affordable housing Alachua County Albuquerque average benefit Broward County calculated Canton capital improvements chapter charge City construction County debt service dedication demand developer exactions Development Impact Fees districts Dolan dwelling unit effects of impact enabling acts example existing development financing Florida funds Georgia growth household housing affordability housing prices impact cost impact fee programs impact fee revenues impact fees assessed impact fees based increase infrastructure Juergensmeyer jurisdictions land land-use level of service ment multifamily Nelson occupancy pact fees payment percent planning police power price effects property taxes proportionate share public facilities rates reduce residential development residential units residents road impact fees school impact fees Scottsdale service area sewer single-family detached single-family detached homes Source square footage Square Mile stormwater subdivision tion trips U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Supreme Court Unit Type velopment Volusia County wastewater water and wastewater