A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts

Front Cover
Alfredo Morabia
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 15, 2005 - Medical - 406 pages

Methods, just as diseases or scientists, have their own history. It is important for scientists to be aware of the genesis of the methods they use and of the context in which they were developed.

A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts is based on a collection of contributions which appeared in "SPM International Journal of Public Health", starting in January 2001. The contributions focus on the historical emergence of current epidemiological methods and their relative importance at different points in time, rather than on specific achievements of epidemiology in controlling plagues such as cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, or lung cancer. The papers present the design of prospective and retrospective studies, and the concepts of bias, confounding, and interaction. The compilation of articles is complemented by an introduction and comments by Prof. Alfredo Morabia which puts them in the context of current epidemiological research.

 

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Contents

An epistemological perspective
3
12 Historical contribution of epidemiology
4
13 Theme of this essay
5
2 Population thinking
7
277 Ratios risks rates and odds
8
272 Prevalence incidence mortality case fatality
9
23 Early ratios proportions and rates
11
24 Risks and rates
16
49 Causal inference
102
410 Principles of knowledge acquisition in epidemiology
105
5 Phases of epidemiology
106
51 Preformal epidemiology
107
513 More examples
110
574 Definition of epidemiology
112
522 Population thinking
113
523 Croup comparisons
114

25 Prevalence and incidence
23
26 Risk and strength of association
28
27 Evolution of population thinking in epidemiology
30
3 Group comparisons
32
32 Eighteenth century
33
33 Nineteenth century
37
332 The London 1854 natural experiment
39
34 Evolution of confounding
42
341 The paradoxical fate of a fallacy
43
342 Early analyses of confounding
48
343 Cohort analysis
53
344 Alternate allocation of treatment
56
345 Logic of confounding
58
35 Casecontrol studies
59
36 Cohort studies
62
37 Selection bias
65
38 Interaction
68
39 Causal inference
72
310 The rare disease assumption
75
311 Refinements of the theory of casecontrol studies
78
3111 Sampling schemes of controls
79
3112 Sampling controls independent of exposure
82
312 Evolution of group comparisons in epidemiology
83
3121 Comparing like with like
84
3122 Fallacies resulting from group incomparability
85
3124 The name of the game
86
3125 Casecontrol and cohort studies
87
4 Epistemology
89
42 Evolution of physics
91
43 Was Hippocrates an epidemiologist?
92
44 Traces of epidemiology in the Bible?
95
45 The impossible comparison
96
46 Why did epidemiology appear so late in human history?
97
47 Emergence of probability
99
48 A theory of group comparison
100
524 Concepts
115
525 Definitions of epidemiology
116
53 Classic epidemiology
117
533 Study designs
119
534 Concepts
120
54 Modern epidemiology
121
542 Population thinking
122
544 Concepts
123
55 What will come next?
124
Collection of papers on the history of epidemiological methods and concepts
127
The changing assessments of John Snows and William Farrs cholera studies
129
Changing images of John Snow in the history of epidemiology
141
Thomas Rowe Edmonds and William Farr 18351845
149
On Prognosis British Medical Almanack 1838 Supplement 199216
159
a forgotten masterpiece
179
Comments regarding On prognosis by William Farr 1838 with reconstruction of his longitudinal analysis of smallpox recovery and death rates
183
comment
195
Methods of outbreak investigation in the Era of Bacteriology 18801920
199
Karl Pearson Ronald Ross Major Greenwood and Austin Bradford Hill 19001945
207
WH Frosts contributions to the epidemiology of tuberculosis and chronic disease
223
A short history of pathology registries with emphasis on cancer registries
231
history of the method
243
Issues of causality in the history of occupational epidemiology
275
Origins and early development of the casecontrol study
291
The history of confounding
313
History of bias
327
Causality in epidemiology
337
Evolution of epidemiologic methods and concepts in selected textbooks of the 20th century
351
Commentary on the paper by Zhang et al Interaction and evolution in epidemiology
363
Commentary on the paper by Zhang et al Lack of evolution of epidemiologic methods and concepts
365
References
367
Index of persons
397
Subject index
401
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