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Financial Intermediaries in Early American History
Accelerated Innovation 18161836
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activities affiliates American amount bank notes bank's bankers banking business banking system became Biddle bills borrowers Boston brokers building and loan central bank century charter circulation city banks commercial banks commercial paper competition corporate country banks credit unions currency debt decade decline demand deposits depression discount rate early economic England especially exchange expansion Federal Reserve System financial institutions financial intermediaries firms government securities growth important income increased industry innovations insurance companies interest rates investment banking investment companies investment trusts investors issues J. P. Morgan late lenders less liquidity loan associations Massachusetts ment merchants million monetary policy money market money supply Morgan mortgage loans mutual savings banks national banks operations panies pension plans percent period Philadelphia premiums private banking railroad real estate result rise savers savings and loan securities markets selling shares short-term thirties tion tontine trade trust companies twenties underwriting United York