## A History of Japanese Mathematics |

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abacus Aida Ajima altitude ancient appeared Araki arithmetic astronomy Book calculation called celestial element century chapter China Chinese Chinese mathematics chord coefficients contemporaries diameter divided Dutch early edition ellipse Endo entitled equation Europe European figures follows formula Fujita given gives Hartsingius Hatono Hayashi inscribed interesting Isomura Japan Japanese mathematics jitsu Kawakita known Kurushima later learning Literally Lord magic squares manuscript mathe mathematicians matics Matsunaga maxima and minima measures mentioned method middle circle Mori multiplied Muramatsu period problems published pupil regular polygon remainder required to find result rods roku root Sakabe Sampo Samps samurai sangi scholars seems segment Seiyo Seki Kowa Seki school Seki's Shogun shown side solution solved soroban sphere swan-pan Takahashi Takebe Takebe's Tengen tenzan algebra theory Tokyo treatise triangle Uchida volume Wada wasan West Western writers written wrote Yamaji Yedo yendan yenri Yoshida

### Popular passages

Page 10 - Given an unknown number, which when divided by 3, leaves a remainder of 2 ; when divided by 5, it leaves 3 ; and when divided by 7, it leaves 2 ; what is the number? Ans. 23. This is followed by a special rule for working out the problem in terms sufficiently concise and elliptical, to elude the comprehension of the casual reader ; — Dividing by 3 with a remainder of 2...

Page 15 - Less than all things," says a current precept, " men must grudge money : it is by riches that wisdom is hindered." Hence children were brought up with utter disregard of economy. It was considered bad taste to speak of it, and ignorance of the value of different coins was a token of good breeding.

Page 13 - In a series of 18 problems, it gives the method of ascertaining the value of unknown quantities, from certain conditions of combination, depending on the number of terms in the equation. The following is one of the simplest examples : — If 5 oxen and 2 sheep cost 10 taels of gold, and 2 oxen and 8 sheep cost 8 taels ; what are the prices of the oxen and sheep respectively ? — Ans., each ox, 1 tael and \^-\ each sheep, f- £ of a tael.

Page vii - It is the hope of the authors that this brief history may serve to show to the West the nature of the mathematics that was indigenous to Japan, and to strengthen the bonds that unite the scholars of the world through an increase in knowledge of and respect for the scientific attainments of a people whose progress in the past four centuries has been one of the marvels of history, It...

Page 15 - ... aesthetic immediacy. Types of religious learning were pursued in the Buddhist temples of Japan, but the sciences were no part of them. "A crude theology, a purposeless logic, a feeble literature — these had some standing; but mathematics save for calendar purposes was ever an outcast in the temple. ... In the period of the Ashikaga shoguns it is asserted that there hardly could be found in all Japan a man •who was versed in the art of division.