A History of Modern Experimental Psychology: From James and Wundt to Cognitive Science
Modern psychology began with the adoption of experimental methods at the end of the nineteenth century: Wilhelm Wundt established the first formal laboratory in 1879; universities created independent chairs in psychology shortly thereafter; and William James published the landmark work Principles of Psychology in 1890. In A History of Modern Experimental Psychology, George Mandler traces the evolution of modern experimental and theoretical psychology from these beginnings to the "cognitive revolution" of the late twentieth century. Throughout, he emphasizes the social and cultural context, showing how different theoretical developments reflect the characteristics and values of the society in which they occurred. Thus, Gestalt psychology can be seen to mirror the changes in visual and intellectual culture at the turn of the century, behaviorism to embody the parochial and puritanical concerns of early twentieth-century America, and contemporary cognitive psychology as a product of the postwar revolution in information and communication.After discussing the meaning and history of the concept of mind, Mandler treats the history of the psychology of thought and memory from the late nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth, exploring, among other topics, the discovery of the unconscious, the destruction of psychology in Germany in the 1930s, and the relocation of the field's "center of gravity" to the United States. He then examines a more neglected part of the history of psychology -- the emergence of a new and robust cognitive psychology under the umbrella of cognitive science.
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Its History and Current Use
Prolegomena of Modern Psychology
3 The Social Context for the New Psychology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Wilhelm Wundt and William James
Consolidation in Europe and Behaviorism in America
Psychology Matures and Theories Abound
8 The Destruction of Psychology in Germany 1933 to 1945
9 The Success of Gestalt Theory and Its Translation to the United States
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American psychology approach association associationism associationist B. F. Skinner behaviorist Berlin brain Bu¨hler chapter chology cognitive psychology cognitive revolution cognitive science complex concept concerned conference congress consciousness culture deﬁned deﬁnition difﬁcult discussion Duncker early Ebbinghaus example experience experimental psychology ﬁeld ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁnding ﬁrst Fritz Heider fu¨r functions German psychology Gestalt psychology Hermann Ebbinghaus human thought ideas imageless thought images important inﬂuence inﬂuential James’s Karl Karl Duncker Ko¨hler Koffka language learning Lewin major Mandler memory ment mental mental Psychology mind models modern movement Mu¨ller nature nineteenth century notion organization Otto Selz perception phenomena philosophers physiology postmodern primarily Principles problem solving processes produced psychol reﬂected rejected revolution scientiﬁc Selz sensations serial order signiﬁcant social speciﬁc stimulus stimulus-response structure term theoretical theory thinking tion Titchener topics tradition twentieth century unconscious United University Verbal Behavior Watson Wertheimer Wilhelm Wundt William James Wu¨rzburg school