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Major states known to have existed in West Africa in the eleventh century
Major caravan routes eleventh to fourteenth centuries
Major states in the fourteenth century
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activities administration Akan Akwamu America Ashanti Atlantic slave trade became began Benin Bornu Britain British government British merchants Cameroons Cape central Sudan coastal coastlands commercial Company conquest Dahomey Denkyira Dutch early east economic effective eighteenth century Elmina emirates empire English established Europe European trade export Fante forts France French West Africa Fulani Gambia German Ghana Gold Coast governor growth Guinea Hamitic Hausa Hausaland important increasing independence influence inhabitants interior Islam islands Ivory Coast Kanem kingdom kings Kumasi Lagos lands Liberia Lugard Mali Mande military missionaries Muslim nations Negroes Nigeria nineteenth century North Africa Northern Nigeria number of slaves officials organised plantations political population Portugal Portuguese possessed protectorate revenue river rule rulers Sahara Sanhaja secure Senegal settlement seventeenth century ships Sierra Leone sixteenth century Slave Coast society Songhai Songhai empire Soninke southern territory Timbuctu Togo traditional trans-Saharan trade treaties western Sudan Yoruba Yorubaland