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According amount argument assertion average Beatrice Webb canonists Catholic chapter claim comfort common bounty concrete consumer contract decent livelihood decent living derived determined dignity distribution distributive justice doctrine duty economic efficiency employer encyclical equal equivalent essential needs ethical existence expended faculties family Living Wage Father fellow gains hedonism Hence human importance increase individual industrial intrinsic worth justice labor power Labor Unions laborer's right latter less liberty loan-capitalist maintain majority man's marriage means measure medieval merely minimum wage morally bound Nassau Senior natural rights necessary nomic number of children obligation obtain organization pay a Living ployer political Pope Leo XIII practice precise present principle question realized received regarded remuneration requisites Rerum Novarum sacredness sense social estimate social utility social welfare society standard subsistence sumer Summa Theologica theory thing tical tion to-day underpaid laborer unskilled valid writers
Page 144 - ... to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community...
Page 143 - To set an example of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display or extravagance; to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him; and, after doing so, to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds, which he is called upon to administer, and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which, in his judgment, is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community...
Page 47 - The only way, it is said, in which injustice could happen would be if the master refused to pay the whole of the wages, or the workman would not complete the work undertaken; when this happens the State should intervene to see that each obtains his own, but not under any other circumstances. "This mode of reasoning is by no means convincing to a fair minded man, for there are important considerations which it leaves out of view altogether.
Page 48 - ... there is a dictate of nature more imperious and more ancient than any bargain between man and man, that the remuneration must be enough to support the wage-earner in reasonable and frugal comfort.
Page 96 - The necessaries for the efficiency of an ordinary agricultural or of an unskilled town laborer and his family in this generation, may be said to consist of a well-drained dwelling with several rooms, warm clothing, with some changes of underclothing, pure water, a plentiful supply of cereal food, with a moderate allowance of meat and milk, and a little tea, etc...
Page 96 - In addition, perhaps, some consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and some indulgence in fashionable dress are in many places so habitual, that they may be said to be conventionally necessary, since in order to obtain them the average man and woman will sacrifice some things which are necessary for efficiency.
Page 98 - ... kitchen, and sufficient sleeping room that decency may be preserved and a reasonable degree of comfort maintained. The American standard of living should mean, to the unskilled workman, carpets, pictures, books and furniture with which to make home bright, comfortable and attractive for himself and his family, an ample supply of clothing suitable for winter and summer, and above all a sufficient quantity of good, wholesome, nourishing food at all times
Page 98 - ... of the year. The American standard of living, moreover, should mean to the unskilled workman, that his children be kept in school until they have attained the age of sixteen at least, and that he be enabled to lay by sufficient to maintain himself and his family in times of illness, or at the close of his industrial life when age and weakness render further work impossible, and to make provision for his family against his premature death from accident or otherwise.
Page 179 - ... with which the question has no real relation, because moral forces may overcome the forces of economic law, and in any event the moral right of the laborer is paramount to the economic rights of the employer, whose moral duty to his employe is gauged by the asserted moral right of the latter. "As a determinant of rights, economic force has no more validity or sacredness than physical force.