A Mechanistic Approach to Plankton Ecology

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Princeton University Press, 2008 - Nature - 209 pages
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The three main missions of any organism--growing, reproducing, and surviving--depend on encounters with food and mates, and on avoiding encounters with predators. Through natural selection, the behavior and ecology of plankton organisms have evolved to optimize these tasks. This book offers a mechanistic approach to the study of ocean ecology by exploring biological interactions in plankton at the individual level. The book focuses on encounter mechanisms, since the pace of life in the ocean intimately relates to the rate at which encounters happen.

Thomas Kiørboe examines the life and interactions of plankton organisms with the larger aim of understanding marine pelagic food webs. He looks at plankton ecology and behavior in the context of the organisms' immediate physical and chemical habitats. He shows that the nutrient uptake, feeding rates, motility patterns, signal transmissions, and perception of plankton are all constrained by nonintuitive interactions between organism biology and small-scale physical and chemical characteristics of the three-dimensional fluid environment.

Most of the book's chapters consist of a theoretical introduction followed by examples of how the theory might be applied to real-world problems. In the final chapters, mechanistic insights of individual-level processes help to describe broader population dynamics and pelagic food web structure and function.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 The Encounter Problem
4
13 This Book
8
Random Walk and Diffusion
10
Bacterial Motility
14
23 Ficks First Law
17
24 Diffusion to or from a Sphere
18
25 Feeding on Solutes
20
58 Attack or Fleethe Dilemma of a Parasitic Copepod
95
59 Maximal Signals Optimal Sensitivity and the Role of Turbulence
96
510 The Evolutionary Arms Race
98
Zooplankton Feeding Rates and Bioenergetics
101
The Functional Response in Oithona davisae
104
63 Other Functional Responses
105
Prey Selection
107
65 Prey Switching
113

26 Maximum and Optimum Cell Size
22
Large yet Small
24
28 Diffusion Feeding
26
Feeding in Nauplii
28
210 Bacteria Colonizing a Sphere
30
211 Effect of Shape
31
Chemical Signals
32
Diffusion and Advection
35
33 Flow around a Sinking Sphere
37
34 Mass Transport to a Sinking Sphere
39
Oxygen Distribution around a Sinking Sphere
40
Osmotrophs Diffusion Feeders and Bacterial Colonization of Sinking Particles
43
Re Pe and Sh for Turbulence
45
SmallScale Heterogeneity
49
Mate Finding in Copepods
50
Particle Encounter by Advection
57
Flagellate Feeding
58
Comparison of Encounter Mechanisms
60
Encountering Prey in Calm Water
67
46 Turbulence and PredatorPrey Encounter Rates
69
Feeding of the Copepod Acartia tonsa in Turbulence
72
48 When Is Turbulence Important for Enhancing PredatorPrey Contact Rates?
74
Negative Effects of Turbulence on PredatorPrey Interactions
75
Ballistic versus Diffusive Motility
77
Hydromechanical Signals in the Plankton
83
Deformation and vorticity
85
Prey Perceiving Predator
87
Predator Perceiving Prey
88
55 To What Flow Components Does a Copepod Respond?
89
56 Sensitivity to Hydrodynamic Signals
91
Egg Production Efficiency in a Copepod
115
68 Scaling of Feeding and Growth Rates
117
69 Feast and Famine in the Plankton
118
Population Dynamics and Interactions
122
Phytoplankton Blooms
123
73 Phytoplankton Population Dynamics and Aggregate Formation
125
74 Phytoplankton Growth and Light Limitation
127
75 Scaling of Growth and Mortality Rates
128
Life Tables
130
Critical Population Size and Allee Effects
133
78 LifeHistory Strategies
135
79 Interacting Populations
140
710 From Individual to Population
149
Structure and Function of Pelagic Food Webs
151
81 Two Pathways in Pelagic Food Webs
152
Conditions for Phytoplankton Development
154
Nutrient Input and Sinking Flux
155
Empirical Evidence
158
85 Cell Size and Nutrient Uptake
161
86 Cell Size Turbulence and Sinking
162
87 Cell Size Turbulence and Light
164
88 Why Are Not All Phytoplankters Small? The Significance of Predation
165
Examples
166
The Paradox of the Plankton
170
811 Fisheries and Trophic Efficiency
173
812 Fertilizing the OceanIncreasing the Fishery and Preventing Global Warming?
177
References
183
Index
205
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