A Missing Link in Cybernetics: Logic and Continuity
In this book I argue that a reason for the limited success of various studies under the general heading of cybernetics is failure to appreciate the importance of con- nuity, in a simple metrical sense of the term. It is with particular, but certainly not exclusive, reference to the Arti cial Intelligence (AI) effort that the shortcomings of established approaches are most easily seen. One reason for the relative failure of attempts to analyse and model intelligence is the customary assumption that the processing of continuous variables and the manipulation of discrete concepts should be considered separately, frequently with the assumption that continuous processing plays no part in thought. There is much evidence to the contrary incl- ing the observation that the remarkable ability of people and animals to learn from experience nds similar expression in tasks of both discrete and continuous nature and in tasks that require intimate mixing of the two. Such tasks include everyday voluntary movement while preserving balance and posture, with competitive games and athletics offering extreme examples. Continuous measures enter into many tasks that are usually presented as discrete. In tasks of pattern recognition, for example, there is often a continuous measure of the similarity of an imposed pattern to each of a set of paradigms, of which the most similar is selected. The importance of continuity is also indicated by the fact that adjectives and adverbs in everyday verbal communication have comparative and superlative forms.
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achieved activity adjustment algorithm allow Andrew animal applied argued Artificial Intelligence associated assumption backpropagation behaviour brain changes Chapter chess classification complex computational demons concept-based processing context continuous variables correlation correspondence criteria of similarity criterion depends described digital computer discrete logic discussed effect elementary exemplification environment error evolutionary example feature feedback of worth fibres Foerster Gaia hypothesis goal Gordon Pask hedony heuristic heuristic connection holography human indication inputs interaction language learning filter Link in Cybernetics machine Marvin Minsky mathematical McCulloch and Pitts means mechanisms methods microtubules Minsky nervous system neural nets neurons neurophysiology observations Oliver Selfridge operation optimisation output pattern perceptron play polynomial possible principle problem reference representation response running values scheme seen self-organising Selfridge sensory signals significance feedback simple simulation situation Springer Science+Business Media strong AI structure suggested task theory tion units usually Warren McCulloch Wiener