A Modular Approach to Testing English Language Skills: The Development of the Certificates in English
Documents the development of the Cambridge ESOL Certificates in English Language Skills (CELS), a suite of modular examinations first offered in 2002. As a context for how CELS was conceived, developed, constructed, validated and managed, the book traces the history of exams which have influenced CELS. The Royal Society of Arts (RSA), later UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate) Communicative Use of English as a Foreign Language examinations (CUEFL) was one such influence, as were the Certificates in Communication Skills in English (CCSE), these exams being a development of the CUEFL. The University of Oxford Delegacy of Local Examinations (UODLE) examinations, taken over by UCLES in 1995, were a further influence on CELS. UODLE itself had worked in partnership with the Association of Recognised Language Schools (ARELS) Examinations Trust, the Oxford EFL reading and writing exams for many years offered in tandem with the ARELS Oral English exams.
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analyses answer sheet approach to language ARELS exam ARELS test assessment audio-lingual method booklet Cambridge candidates CCSE exam CCSE Handbook CELS exam centres Chapter check your answers Chief Examiner communicative approach communicative testing complete construct Council of Europe criteria CUEFL and CCSE CUEFL exam deﬁned deﬁnition degree of skill difﬁculty EFL examinations enabling skills end of Task English Language Figure ﬁrst format grammar hear inﬂuences intelligent character recognition inter-rater reliability interlocutor interview item writers language teaching language testing learners Leeds Castle levels listening tests Look at Task Main Suite mark schemes Morrow needs oral interaction Oxford EFL exam Oxford exams Oxford-ARELS PAUSE 10 seconds PAUSE Now listen performance pre-testing Preliminary proﬁciency question paper recorded reﬂect reliability REPEAT RECORDING sample scores signiﬁcant skill areas sociolinguistic speaking speciﬁcations standardisation summarised syllabus target task types teachers text types there’s topics trialling UCLES University of Cambridge validation