A Philosophy of Human Hope
Few reference works in philosophy have articles on hope. Few also are systematic or large-scale philosophical studies of hope. Hope is admitted to be important in people's lives, but as a topic for study, hope has largely been left to psychologists and theologians. For the most part philosophers treat hope en passant. My aim is to outline a general theory of hope, to explore its structure, forms, goals, reasonableness, and implications, and to trace the implications of such a theory for atheism or theism. What has been written is quite disparate. Some see hope in an individualistic, often existential, way, and some in a social and political way. Hope is proposed by some as essentially atheistic, and by others as incomprehensible outside of one or another kind of theism. Is it possible to think consistently and at the same time comprehensively about the phenomenon of human hoping? Or is it several phenomena? How could there be such diverse understandings of so central a human experience? On what rational basis could people differ over whether hope is linked to God? What I offer here is a systematic analysis, but one worked out in dialogue with Ernst Bloch, Immanuel Kant, and Gabriel Marcel. Ernst Bloch of course was a Marxist and officially an atheist, Gabriel Marcel a Christian theist, and Immanuel Kant was a theist, but not in a conventional way.
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HOPING DESIRING AND BEING SATISFIED
HOPING IMAGINING AND PROJECTING
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absolute hope absolute Thou actual aimed hope analysis another's benefit Anthony Kenny argument attitude basic trust beliefs Buber chapter characterized cognitive conception context contrast CPrR despair disappointment disposition Donald Evans effect empirical thou Ernst Bloch eschatological essay essay's ethical commonwealth expectation-affect fulfillment full hope fundamental hope future Gabriel Marcel ground happiness highest hope and fundamental hope-for-us hope-in hope's desiring hope's objectives hope's trust hoping's human I-Thou relationship Immanuel Kant implies individual insofar instrument intersubjective model involved Kant Kant's kingdom liberation theology Macquarrie Martin Buber Marxism matter means moral law nature needs notion one's oneself organ of apprehension outcome Paul Ricoeur person philosophical possible practical reason present question reality recognize relation relationship Religion requires satisfaction seems sense simple absolute desiring social sound ultimate hope speak specific superordinate term theism theology theoretical understanding utilization virtue will-nature model