A Portrait of Race and Ethnicity in California: An Assessment of Social and Economic Well-being
This document examines differences in socioeconomic status by racial and ethnic groups in California, exploring changing patterns over time. It analyzes trends and outcomes in demography, geographic distribution, health, education, crime, labor markets, economic status, and political participation. Data on educational outcomes include: education of mothers; English language ability; preschool activities of children ages 3 and 4; reading and math proficiency for grade 4 and 8 public school students; high school completion rates; college completion rates; and measures of basic skills in the adult population. The educational outcomes of Hispanics and African Americans are the lowest among all racial and ethnic groups. Most recent population growth has occurred among Hispanics and Asians. Most counties were predominantly White in 1970, but between 1970-98, the share of Whites declined in all but one county. African Americans have the worst health status of any group. Hispanics often have less access to health care and lower health status than Whites. Health indicators for Asians are similar to those for Whites. Nonwhites generally have lower earnings than whites. Hispanics and African Americans have particularly high unemployment rates. Asian and White family incomes are substantially higher than those for African Americans and Hispanics. The ethnic distribution of those arrested and incarcerated has shifted dramatically. The proportion of Hispanics incarcerated has risen at a faster rate than has the Hispanic proportion of the general population. African Americans experience the highest risk of arrest and incarceration and are most likely to experience violence. Whites are over-represented in the voting population. Asians and Hispanics have the lowest participation rates. An appendix presents additional sources of information. (Contains 103 bibliographic references.) (SM)
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1990 Censuses PUMS 54 by Race 70 percent adults Americans and Hispanics Asian African American Asian groups Asian Indian Asian women Asians and Hispanics California Department Caribbean Census Central and South Chinese Filipino college completion rates college degree counties Current Population Survey declined Department of Finance ethnic groups Filipino Chinese Filipino Japanese Chinese foreign-born Japanese groups in California high school completion high school diploma higher Hispanic Asian African Hispanic groups Hispanic women Hispanics and Asians households immigrants increased Japanese Filipino labor market Latino low birthweight low earning occupations median earnings Northern and Mountain overcrowded participation rates percent of African percent of Asian percent of Hispanics percent of whites Place of Birth poverty line poverty rates prenatal care proportion public assistance Race and Ethnicity racial and ethnic reﬂects school completion rates Source substantially U.S.-born Asian U.S.-born Hispanic voting White African White Hispanic Asian white median whites and African whites and Asians