A Practical Handbook of Speech Coders

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CRC Press, Apr 21, 2000 - Technology & Engineering - 256 pages
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The demand for digital speech coding algorithms grows every day, fueled by applications such as streaming speech over the Internet, Internet telephone, digital cellular telephony, wireless teleconferencing, and various multimedia applications. Until now, most of the books available on audio coding have been collections of individually authored papers. Others have discussed the fundamental coders, but neglected many of the innovations currently in use. Unlike these books, A Practical Handbook of Speech Coders offers in-depth treatment of the basics of speech coding plus the innovations to the basic methods that make the coders useful and efficient.
The authors designed this work for engineers, scientists, and manager who need to understand the emerging speech coding techniques and telecommunication standards. However, it will prove useful to people at all levels of speech coder experience:
  • If you want to simply download the code for an existing algorithm, this book helps you evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of all publicly available codes and choose the right one, then points you to the Internet location where the code is available for download.
  • For experts who want to improve on existing coders, this book provides the parameters of current coders and the techniques to improve upon them. You can download an existing algorithm or code it using the algorithmic descriptions in the book, make your innovations, and then test the code with the procedures given.
  • If you want to become an expert and have some basic knowledge of digital signal processing, you can learn the innovative steps taken by the inventor of each coder, explore the rigorous research techniques needed to develop your own coder, and become proficient in existing vocoder technology.
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    Contents

    Introduction
    1
    Speech Production
    5
    22 Articulation
    8
    221 Excitation
    9
    222 Vocal Tract
    11
    223 Phonemes
    14
    23 SourceFilter Model
    29
    Speech Analysis Techniques
    33
    823 Background Noise and Channel Conditions
    119
    83 Perceptual Objective Measures
    120
    Voice Coding Concepts
    123
    91 Channel Vocoder
    125
    911 Implementations of the Channel Vocoder
    126
    92 Formant Vocoder
    128
    93 The Sinusoidal Speech Coder
    130
    932 Sinusoidal Parameter Analysis
    131

    32 Systems and Filtering
    36
    33 ZTransform
    38
    34 Fourier Transform
    40
    35 Discrete Fourier Transform
    42
    351 Fast Fourier Transform
    43
    36 Windowing Signal Segments
    45
    Linear Prediction Vocal Tract Modeling
    51
    411 MultipleTube Model
    55
    42 Estimation of LP Parameters
    57
    421 Autocorrelation Method of Parameter Estimation
    58
    422 Covariance Method
    59
    43 Transformations of LP Parameters for Quantization
    60
    44 Examples of LP Modeling
    61
    Pitch Extraction
    65
    51 Autocorrelation Pitch Estimation
    66
    511 Autocorrelation of CenterClipped Speech
    68
    512 Cross Correlation
    69
    513 Energy Normalized Correlation
    72
    53 FrequencyDomain Error Minimization
    76
    54 Pitch Tracking
    77
    542 Dynamic Programming Tracking
    78
    Auditory Information Processing
    79
    62 Critical Bands
    80
    63 Thresholds of Audibility and Detectability
    83
    64 Monaural Masking
    85
    642 Temporal Masking
    87
    Quantization and Waveform Coders
    89
    71 Uniform Quantization
    90
    72 Nonlinear Quantization
    93
    721 Nonuniform Pulse Code Modulation
    94
    731 Predictive Differential Coding
    96
    732 Delta Modulation
    97
    74 Adaptive Quantization
    99
    75 Vector Quantization
    103
    751 Distortion Measures
    105
    752 Codebook Training
    107
    753 Complexity Reduction Approaches
    108
    754 Predictive Vector Quantization
    110
    Quality Evaluation
    113
    81 Objective Measures
    114
    812 Spectral Distance
    115
    821 Intelligibility
    116
    822 Quality
    117
    94 Linear Prediction Vocoder
    133
    941 Federal Standard 1015 LPClOe at 24 kbits
    137
    Linear Prediction Analysis by Synthesis
    139
    101 Analysis by Synthesis Estimation of Excitation
    140
    102 MultiPulse Linear Prediction Coder
    141
    103 Regular Pulse Excited LP Coder
    142
    1031 ETSI GSM Full Rate RPELTP
    143
    1041 CELP Concept
    145
    1042 CELP Computational Efficiency Improvements
    146
    1043 Adaptive Postfiltering
    148
    1044 Federal Standard 1016 CELP at 48 kbitssec
    149
    1046 ITU G7231 Algebraic CELPMultiPulse Coder at 5363 kbits
    150
    1047 ETSI GSM Enhanced Full Rate Algebraic CELP at 122 kbits
    152
    1048 IS641 EFR 74 kbits Algebraic CELP for IS 136 North American Digital Cellular
    153
    1049 ETSI GSM Adaptive MultiRate Algebraic CELP from 475 to 122 kbits
    154
    Mixed Excitation Coding
    157
    1111 MultiBand Excitation Analysis
    158
    1112 MultiBand Excitation Synthesis
    161
    1113 Implementations of the MBE Vocoder
    163
    112 Mixed Excitation Linear Prediction Coder
    165
    1121 Federal Standard MELP Coder at 24 kbits
    168
    1122 Improvements to MELP Coder
    174
    113 Split Band LPC Coder
    176
    1131 Bit Allocations and Quality Results
    177
    114 Harmonic Vector Excitation Coder
    179
    1142 HVXC Decoder
    182
    1143 HVXC Performance
    185
    1151 WI Coder and Decoder
    186
    1152 Quantization of SEW and REW
    188
    1153 Performance and Enhancements
    189
    Perceptual Speech Coding
    193
    1211 General Perceptual Speech Coder
    194
    1212 Frequency and Temporal Masking
    195
    1213 Determining Masking Levels
    197
    122 Perceptual Coding Considerations
    199
    1221 Limits on TimeFrequency Resolution
    200
    1223 MBE Model for Perceptual Coding
    201
    123 Research in Perceptual Speech Coding
    202
    Related Internet Sites
    205
    A2 Technical Conferences ICASSP
    207
    References
    209
    Index
    225
    Copyright

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    Page 213 - P. Cummiskey, NS Jayant and JL Flanagan, "Adaptive quantization in differential PCM coding of speech,
    Page 217 - Transform Coding of Audio Signals Using Perceptual Noise Criteria," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.
    Page 211 - A perceptual speech quality measure based on a psychoacoustic sound representation,
    Page 225 - Telecommunications: Analog to Digital Conversion of Radio Voice By 4800 Bit/Second Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP)," National Communication System — Office Technology and Standards, Feb.
    Page 216 - Perceptual linear predictive (PLP) analysis of speech", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 87, No.

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