A Primer of Biomechanics

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 1999 - Medical - 297 pages
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A PRIMER OF BIOMECHANICS is the first volume of its kind to present the principles of biomechanics with a highly clinical orientation. Dr. Lucas and his colleagues (specialists in biomechanics) have assembled a practical guide utilizing case presentations to make this very technical and complicated material palatable to the orthopaedic resident and practitioner. This "user-friendly" text is further enhanced by well integrated chapters covering all the basic materials and the latest information of this rapidly evolving field from the perspective of its useful application. Each case presentation is followed by a detailed, but easily understandable explanation of the biomechanical principles involved and includes protocols for treatment. This volume is a must-have for orthopaedic residents and practitioners.
 

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Contents

Mechanics
1
11 Mechanics
2
12 Newtons Laws
4
13 Characteristics of Forces
5
133 Vectors
6
135 Effect
7
15 Resolution of a Force into Its Components
9
16 Trigonometric Analysis of Force Systems
11
112 Finite Element Modeling and Analysis in Orthopaedics
141
1121 Special Considerations in Finite Element Modeling
142
113 Design Considerations for Orthopaedic Implants
145
114 Mechanics of Total Hip Replacement
148
1141 Hip Joint Forces and Moments
149
1143 Positioning of the Femoral Component
151
115 Mechanics of Total Knee Replacement
152
1152 Design of the Tibial Component
153

17 Addition of Force Vectors
12
18 Static Equilibrium
14
183 Determination of Unknown Forces
16
Clinical Answer
22
Moments
23
21 Moments
24
211 Moments as Vectors
25
212 Couples
26
221 The FreeBody Diagram
27
23 Hip Forces
30
Clinical Answer
34
Strength of Materials
36
32 Stress
41
33 StressStrain Diagram
45
34 Modulus of Elasticity or Youngs Modulus
46
341 Elastic Moduli of Some Common Orthopaedic Materials
47
35 Strength and Other Material Properties from the StressStrain Curve
48
Cortical Versus Cancellous
50
Clinical Answer
52
Stresses in Bending
53
41 Stresses in Bending
54
42 Calculating Stresses Due to Bending in Structures
58
43 Determining Area Moment of Inertia I
60
44 Determining Stresses in Real Structures
61
45 Bending Rigidity
64
Clinical Answer
65
Stresses in Torsion
67
51 Stresses in Torsion
68
52 Calculating Stresses Due to Applied Torques
70
53 Determining Polar Moment of Inertia J
71
54 Determining Stresses in Real Structures
72
55 Spiral Fractures in Torsion
74
Clinical Answer
78
Stress Shielding of Bone
79
Wolffs Law
80
62 Stress Shielding of Bones by Implants
81
622 Proximal Femur in Total Hip Arthroplasty
84
Clinical Answer
88
Work and Energy Concepts
89
71 Definition of Work and Energy
90
711 Energy of Falls
92
712 Energy of Impact Injuries
93
721 Gait Efficiency
94
722 Efficiency of Abnormal Gait
95
Clinical Answer
97
Stress Raisers Fracture and Fatigue
98
81 StressRaising Defects
99
811 StressRaising Defects in Brittle Materials
101
812 StressRaising Defects in Forgiving Materials
104
813 Defects in Bone
105
82 Static Fracture of Materials and Structures
107
83 Fatigue Failure of Materials and Structures
108
Clinical Answer
112
Biomechanics of Pathology
114
91 Fractures
115
92 Fracture in Abnormal Bone
117
93 Bone Weakening
120
Clinical Answer
124
Mechanics of Treatment
126
101 Biomechanical Requirements for Fracture Healing
127
102 Biomechanics of Bone Screw
128
1021 Cortical Bone Screws
129
1022 Cancellous Bone Screws
131
1031 Permanent Deformation in Bending of Bone Plates
133
104 Biomechanics of External Fixation
134
105 Biomechanics of Intramedullary Nails
135
1051 Interlocked IM Nails
136
Clinical Answer
137
Mechanics of Implants
138
111 Load Sharing Versus Load Transfer
139
1112 LoadTransferring Implants
140
1153 Design of the Patellar Component
154
Clinical Answer
155
Considerations in Biomechanical Testing
157
121 Basics of Mechanical Testing Equipment
158
1212 Measurement of Displacement
164
1214 Measuring Pressure
166
122 Considerations in Testing Synthetic Biomaterials
167
1222 Testing Rate and Frequency
168
1223 Aging and Heat Treatment of Materials
169
1224 ASTM Specifications or Standards for Testing Biomaterials
170
1232 Hydrodynamic Effects
171
Clinical Answer
172
Biomaterials Basics
174
131 Definition of the Solid State and the Nature of Interatomic Bonds
175
1312 Liquids
176
132 Magnitudes of Bond Strengths
177
133 Changes in State
178
1341 Ionic Bonding
180
1342 Covalent Bonding
181
1343 Metallic Bonding
182
1344 Weak Bonding
183
1351 Ceramics
184
1352 Metals
186
1353 Polymers
195
Clinical ANswer
196
Orthopaedic Alloys
198
142 CobaltBased Alloys
200
1421 Cast Alloys
202
1423 PowderMetal Alloys
205
143 Titanium Alloys
206
1431 Structure of Titanium Alloys
208
144 Wear of Implant Alloys
209
145 Fatigue of Implant Alloys
210
Clinical Answer
211
Corrosion in the Body
213
151 Electrochemical Corrosion
215
152 Electrode Reactions
218
153 Dissimilar Metals or Galvanic Corrosion
220
154 Passivation
222
155 Implant Alloys
223
156 Crevice Corrosion
225
157 Fretting Corrosion
226
1510 Sensitization
227
1511 Ion Release
228
1512 Conclusion
230
Orthopaedic Polymers
232
1611 Addition Polymerization
233
162 Structural Formulas of Polymers
235
163 Strength of Polymers
236
1631 Molecular Weight
237
1632 Crystallinity
239
1634 Additives
241
1635 Branching and CrossLinking
242
1636 Fillers
243
Bone Cement and Polyethylene
244
1642 Polyethylene
250
Clinical Answer
255
Tissue Mechanics
257
171 Viscoelastic Nature of Tissues
258
1712 Characteristics of Viscoelastic Material Behavior
263
172 Bone
267
1722 Cancellous Bone
269
173 Articular Cartilage
272
174 Knee Meniscus
275
176 Ligaments
277
Clinical Answer
280
Glossary
281
Questions Similar to Those of the OITE and Board
285
Index
291
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About the author (1999)

Lucas of the University of Kansas Orthopaedic Research Institute, Wichita

Cooke of the University of Kansas Orthopaedic Research Institute, Wichita

Friis of the University of Kansas Orthopaedic Research Institute, Wichita

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