A Primer on Determinism

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Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 31, 1986 - Mathematics - 273 pages
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The title of this work is to be taken seriously: it is a small book for teaching students to read the language of determinism. Some prior knowledge of college-level mathematics and physics is presupposed, but otherwise the book is suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in the philosophy of science. While writing I had in mind primarily a philosophical audience, but I hope that students and colleagues from the sciences will also find the treatment of scientific issues of interest. Though modest in not trying to reach beyond an introductory level of analysis, the work is decidedly immodest in trying to change a number of misimpressions that pervade the philosophical literature. For example, when told that classical physics is not the place to look for clean and unproblematic examples of determinism, most philosophers react with a mixture of disbelief and incomprehension. The misconcep tions on which that reaction is based can and must be changed.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
DEFINING DETERMINISM
4
CAUSE AND EFFECT
5
LAPLACES DEMON
6
POPPERS DEMON
8
5 RUSSELLS DEFINITION
10
6 WHAT DETERMINISM IS
12
7 FEAR AND LOATHING
14
9 CONCLUSION
126
DETERMINISM AND TIME SYMMETRIES
128
2 TIME TRANSLATION INVARIANCE
129
CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL
130
5 TIME REVERSAL INVARIANCE AND FUTURISTIC AND HISTORICAL DETERMINISM
131
6 DETERMINISM PLUS TIME TRANSLATION INVARIANCE IMPLY PERIODICITY
132
VINDICATED?
133
DEFENDED
134

8 DEMOCRACY AND SYMMETRY
16
9 NONLAPLACIAN VARIETIES OF DETERMINISM
17
10 CHE SARA SARA
18
11 DETERMINISTIC THEORIES
20
12 CONCLUSION
21
DETERMINISM IN CLASSICAL PHYSICS
23
2 THE APPARENT FAILURE OF DETERMINISM IN LEIBNIZIAN PHYSICS
25
3 LEIBNIZS RESPONSE
27
4 NEWTONIAN SPACETIME
29
5 NEWTONIAN PARTICLE MECHANICS
30
6 DETERMINISM AT BAY
33
7 DETERMINISM AT SEA
35
8 LIFE RAFTS
37
9 INFINITE BILLIARDS
39
10 HEAT
40
11 WALLING OUT
43
12 OLD HEAT
44
13 DONT FENCE ME IN
45
14 CLASSICAL ELECTROMAGNETISM
47
15 SHOCKING WAVES
48
16 VISCOUS FLUIDS
51
17 CONCLUSION
52
NOTES
53
DETERMINISM IN SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS
55
1 SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC WORLDS
56
2 DOMAINS OF DEPENDENCE
58
4 LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM AT LAST
60
5 HIGHER DIMENSIONS AND WEAK SOLUTIONS HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
61
6 DOMAINS OF PREDICTION
63
RETARDED AND ADVANCED ACTIONATADISTANCE
66
8 INSTANTANEOUS ACTIONATADISTANCE
72
9 TACHYONS
75
10 CONCLUSION
77
DETERMINISM AND LAWS OF NATURE
80
1 HUMES DEFINITIONS OF CAUSE
81
2 THE NAIVE REGULARITY ACCOUNT
83
3 THE EMPIRICIST CONSTRAINTS
85
4 MILL RAMSEY AND LEWIS
87
A CLOSER LOOK
88
6 LAWS AS UNIVERSAL AND ETERNAL TRUTHS
90
7 DEFEASIBILITY AND DEGREES OF LAWFULNESS
91
8 CHALLENGES TO THE REGULARITY ACCOUNT OF LAWS
93
THE GARDEN VARIETY TYPE
94
10 TOOLEYS CASE
96
11 NOMIC NECESSITY
98
12 LAWS AS CONTINGENT RELATIONS AMONG UNIVERSALS
101
13 CONCLUSION
107
DETERMINISM MECHANISM AND EFFECTIVE COMPUTABILITY
111
FIRST TRY
114
3 GRZEGORCZYK COMPUTABILITY
116
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
118
6 EXTENDED COMPUTABILITY
119
7 GENERALIZED COMPUTABILITY
120
8 OBJECTIONS CHURCHS THESIS REVISITED
123
GENERAL RELATIVITY AND TIME SYMMETRIES
135
DETERMINISM RANDOMNESS AND CHAOS
137
1 DEFINING RANDOMNESS
138
2 RANDOMNESS DISORDER AND COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY
141
3 BIASED COINS
143
4 UTTER CHAOS
145
5 DETERMINISM AND PERFORMANCE RANDOMNESS
146
FREQUENCIES OR PROPENSITIES?
147
DETERMINISM INSTABILITY AND APPARENT RANDOMNESS
154
1 STABILITY AND INSTABILITY FOR FIELDS
155
2 CLASSICAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS
157
WHAT WE WANT
158
CAN WE HAVE WHAT WE WANT?
161
5 INSTABILITY IN CLASSICAL PARTICLE SYSTEMS
162
6 STRANGE ATTRACTORS
164
7 CONCLUSION
166
THE BAKERS TRANSFORMATION
167
DETERMINISM IN GENERAL RELATIVISTIC PHYSICS
170
2 TIME SLICES
172
3 PARTITIONING BY TIME SLICES
173
5 THE STATUS OF CAUSALITY CONDITIONS
175
6 CAUCHY SURFACES
176
7 THE CAUCHY INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM
179
8 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CAUCHY INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM
180
9 LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM IN THE MEDIUM AND THE SMALL
183
10 SINGULARITIES
185
11 COSMIC CENSORSHIP
188
12 PREDICTION
193
13 GEOMETRODYNAMICS
194
14 THE CHARACTERISTIC INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM
195
15 CONCLUSION
197
DETERMINISM IN QUANTUM PHYSICS
199
1 QUANTUM MECHANICS AS MORE DETERMINISTIC THAN CLASSICAL MECHANICS
200
A CLOSER LOOK
202
3 THE PROJECTION POSTULATE
206
JOINT PROBABILITIES
209
5 THE THEOREMS OF GLEASON AND KOCHENSPECKER
211
6 BELLS THEOREM
213
7 REALISM AND THE INCOMPLETENESS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
215
8 THE PROBLEM OF MEASUREMENT
219
9 THE INSOLUBILITY OF THE MEASUREMENT PROBLEM
222
10 DETERMINISM AND QUANTUM MECHANICS
226
11 INDETERMINISM RANDOMNESS AND STOCHASTICITY
231
12 CONCLUSION
233
DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL
235
1 MORAL AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE COMPATIBILIST POSITION
236
2 TROPISMS
239
3 INDETERMINISTIC ACTIONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF A SCIENCE OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
243
4 CONCLUSION
249
FINAL EXAM
251
BIBLIOGRAPHY
257
INDEX OF NAMES
270
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