A Re-definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe

Front Cover
Ricky Van Oers, Eva Ersbøoll, Theodora Kostakopoulou
BRILL, 2010 - Law - 338 pages
0 Reviews
Language and integration tests as a condition for naturalisation and various types of legal residence permits are topical issues in several European Member States. The introduction of the tests reflects a change in ideas on the relationship between legal status and integration. Since the introduction of the tests is a rather recent development, little is known of the effects of the formalised testing schemes. Whether the tests have in fact contributed to the integration of immigrants in the host society or whether they function as a mechanism for selection and exclusion is unknown. In this book, experts from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom analyse the policies concerning the integration of newcomers and/or future citizens in their countries.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Introduction
1
11 The European Dimension
11
12 Plan of the Book
18
Naturalisation Policy and Citizenship Testing in Austria
25
12 The Political Debate on Naturalisation
29
13 The Nationality Act of 2006
33
14 Empirical Analysis
35
15 Methodology
37
397 Statistics
147
398 To sum up
148
An Evolving Process between Integration and Migration Issues
153
41 The Evolving Nature of Integration Measures
156
411 Widening the Scope of Integration Measures
157
4112 The creation of an integration contract applicable to any residence permit application
159
4113 The creation of an integration contract for the family in cases of family reunification
161
412 Strengthening the Content and the Effects of Integration Measures
163

16 The Content of the Test
39
162 The Provincial Level
40
163 Explaining the Differences
44
17 Naturalisation Statistics and Citizenship Testing
47
18 Conclusions
49
Chapter 2 Citizenship Tests in the Netherlands Germany and the UK
51
21 Concepts of Citizenship
53
211 Liberal Citizenship
54
212 Republican Citizenship
56
213 Communitarian Citizenship
57
22 Towards More Demanding Ways of Integration Testing
58
a new bill is proposed
60
2213 Replacement of the naturalisation test
62
The Debate in the United Kingdom
64
2222 The Nationality Immigration and Asylum Bill in Parliament
65
2223 The New and the Old
66
2224 Sufficient knowledge of life and language in the UK
67
2225 Path to citizenship
68
The German Debate
70
2232 Discussion of the coalition Bill in Parliament
71
2233 The debates surrounding the Immigration Act
74
2234 Introducing citizenship tests in certain Länder
75
the proposals of the Länder
77
the government proposals
78
224 Conclusions
81
23 The different citizenship tests
83
231 Content of the knowledge of society tests
87
24 Effects of the Knowledge Requirements
91
Results of the Dutch naturalisation test
93
2411 Problem Categories
94
steady rise
96
Results of the Life in the UK test
97
25 Effects of the German Knowledge Requirements
98
Results of the German Einburgerungstest
100
26 Conclusions
101
Chapter 3 On Trial in Denmark
107
32 Danish immigration
108
322 Danish Aliens Policy
109
33 Integration programmes
110
332 Integration Programmes
112
34 Danish Language Courses for Adult Foreigners
115
342 Content of Danish Language Courses and Tests
117
343 Target Group
118
344 Fees
119
345 Statistics
120
35 Access to Permanent Residence and the Right to Family Reunification
121
352 Union Citizens
124
36 The Integration Test
126
362 Target Group
127
364 Attitudes Towards the Test
128
372 Target Group
129
373 Test Level Content and Procedures
130
38 Language Test Requirements as a Condition for Naturalisation
132
382 The Naturalisation Procedure
133
383 The Language Requirements for Naturalisation
134
384 Target Group
136
385 Public and Political Debate
137
386 Statistics
139
387 To sum up
141
39 The Citizenship Test
142
393 Development of the Test
143
394 The Citizenship Test and the Textbook
144
396 Public and Political Debate
145
4122 The effects of the integration contract
167
The integration contract for the family within the framework of family reunification
171
42 The Establishment of Integration Measures in the Country of Origin
172
421 Framing the Project
173
4212 Legal barriers
175
422 Implementing the Project
177
4222 Consequences of the evaluations
179
4223 Exemptions
181
43 Conclusion
182
Chapter 5 Integration Tests in Germany A Communitarian Approach?
185
51 Why and under what Circumstances were the Tests Introduced?
186
52 The Existing Integration Requirements
191
53 A Closer Look at the Content of German Integration Requirements
196
54 Results of Existing Evaluations and Effectiveness of the Measures
200
541 Discussion of the Effectiveness of Integration Requirements in Germany
204
Integration Requirements and Cultural Assimilation
206
Chapter 6 Ethnic Citizenship Can it be Obtained and Tested?
211
62 Acquisition of Citizenship
212
621 Examination of applicants
216
622 Debates on the Examination
221
623 Statistics
224
63 Required Preintegration of Refugees
226
64 Covert Integration of other ThirdCountry Nationals
229
65 Free Movement for Supposedly Integrated Persons
231
66 Halfhearted Policy
233
67 Who are we?
234
68 Conclusions
237
Lost in Translation
241
72 Context and Challenges for Latvian Integration Policies
243
721 The Influence of the European Union
246
722 Russias Influence
247
723 Integration Programme
248
73 Main Issues of Integration
249
732 Latvian Language as Single State Language
254
733 Education Reform
256
74 Current Discussions on Integration
258
742 Longterm Citizenship Policy
261
744 Obstacles to the Integration of Society
264
75 Conclusion
266
Discordances Between the Flemish Policy of Inburgering and the Federal Legislators Views on the Integration of Newcomers and Migrants
271
82 The Belgian Case
273
821 Federal Institutions and Instruments
274
8212 Successive amendments of the Nationality Code
276
ethnos vs demos
278
822 Wallonia
280
823 BrusselsCapital
281
824 Flanders
283
83 Flanders and Inburgering
285
832 The Public and Political Debate
290
833 Implementation and its Measurable Effects
293
8332 The social characteristics of the immigrants
294
84 Peculiarities of Belgium
295
Mixing Multiculturalism and Civic Integration in Flanders
296
842 Discordance between Flemish Inburgering and the Belgian Nationality Code
298
843 Flemish Policy of Inburgering in the Light of the Dutch Example
300
85 Concluding Remarks
301
Chapter 9 Mapping the redefinition of belonging in Europe
307
91 The rationale for the introduction of language and integration tests
312
92 The effects of the language and civic integration requirements
321
human rights and pluralism
326
Annex 1 Levels of language proficiency in the Council of Europes Common European Framework of Reference
333
Index
335
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

About the author (2010)

Ricky van Oers is a Ph.D. researcher at the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. She has published on European trends in nationality laws (AUP, 2006) and the recent restrictive turn in Dutch citizenship policy. Eva Ersb ll is senior researcher at The Danish Institute for Human Rights. She has published extensively on nationality issues, including Acquisition and Loss of Nationality, vol. 1 and 2, (AUP, 2006). Dora Kostakopoulou is Jean Monnet Professor of European Law and European Integration at Manchester University.

Bibliographic information