A Review of the Scientific Literature as it Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses: Pyridostigmine bromide
Beatrice Alexandra Golomb, Grant N. Marshall, United States. Dept. of Defense. Office of the Secretary of Defense, National Defense Research Institute (U.S.)
Rand, 1998 - Business & Economics - 385 pages
The confrontation that began when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990 brought with it the threat that chemical and biological weapons might be used against the more than half a million military personnel the United States deployed to the region. To protect these troops from such threats, the Department of Defense wished to use drugs and vaccines that, not having been tested for use in these specific situations, were considered "investigational" by the federal Food and Drug Administration. This report examines the history of the Interim Rule, adopted in December 21, 1990, that authorized the Commissioner of Food and Drugs to waive informed consent for the use of investigational drugs and vaccines for certain military uses; how this authority was used for pyridostigmine bromide and botulinum toxoid during the Gulf War; and the subsequent controversy surrounding the rule, its application, and its implications.
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abnormalities Acetylcholine acetylcholinergic ACh receptors ACh system AChE activity AChE inhibitors acute Albuquerque alterations animal studies atropine binding blood-brain barrier brain bromide bromism carbamates catecholamine cell changes Chapter chemical sensitivities chlorpyrifos cholinergic cholinesterase chronic effects clinical controls DEET doses of PB downregulation drug dysregulation effects of PB endplate enhanced enzyme evaluated evidence exposure factors fatigue function hormone humans identified ill PGW veterans ill veterans illnesses in PGW increased individual differences inhibition Janowsky levels mechanisms Medical metabolism mg/kg Moreover muscarinic receptors muscle myasthenia gravis myasthenics nerve agent neuromuscular junction neuronal neuropsychological neurotoxic neurotransmitter nicotinic receptors normal occur OPIDN patients PB pretreatment percent permethrin Persian Gulf personnel pesticides Pharmacol physostigmine possible potential primates produce protection Pyridostigmine Pyridostigmine Bromide rats reduced regulation release reported response to PB result role sarin self-reported serotonin side effects sleep apnea soman SPECT stress suggests susceptibility symptoms syndrome tests time-course toxicity Toxicol treatment