A Short History of Structural Linguistics
This concise history of structural linguistics charts its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists a language is a self-contained and tightly organised system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This idea has its origin in the nineteenth century and was developed in the twentieth by Saussure and his followers, including the school of Bloomfield in the United States. Through the work of Chomsky, especially, it is still very influential. Matthews examines the beginnings of structuralism and analyses the vital role played in it by the study of sound systems and the problems of how systems change. He discusses theories of the overall structure of a language, the 'Chomskyan revolution' in the 1950s, and the structuralist theories of meaning.
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21 Linguistics as the study of language systems
22 Languages as sets of utterances
23 The autonomy of linguistics
31 The prehistory of the phoneme
52 Phonology and grammar
53 Deep structure and surface structure
61 Generative grammars
62 Knowing a language
63 Universal Grammar and diachrony
71 Meanings as invariants
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abstraction accordingly acoustic image act of speech Alfred rode allophones analysis articulation Bloomfield called characterised Chomsky Chomsky's clear complementary distribution concept consonant contrast Coseriu deep structures defined definition describe descriptive linguistics determined developed diachronic dictionary distinction distinguished earlier elements English example expression follow girl guage Hjelmslev Hockett hungry I-language ideas identified Jakobson knowledge Labov language structure language system langue later Lightfoot linguistique Martinet meaning monemes morphemes norm noun object particular phonemes phonology phrase plural postpositions Prague Linguistic Circle Prague School precisely principle problem realised refer relation representations rules Sapir Saussure Saussure's Cours Saussurean Saussurean terms seen semantic semantic interpretation sense sentence sequences sign relation sign-contents sign-expressions signifie simply social speakers specific speech-sounds structural linguistics structuralist surface structures syllable synchronic syntactic syntax terminology tion Trubetzkoy units Universal Grammar utterances verb vowel words Zellig Harris